This report will cover the basis of human resources strategic planning, learning theory, and training needs analysis as incorporated in business. It will help to understand the necessity of the three and when and how to apply them for training needs.
1. Identify the five phases of the training process model (TPM); explain fully the process that goes on in each of the phases.
A training process is developed and implemented by businesses to meet organizational needs, and in return the organization will improve, training value will increase, employees will gain more knowledge and skill and more training will likely occur. A training process usually begins with a triggering event. This happens when managers realize that the actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected organizational performance (EOP).
The five phases of the Training Process Model (TPM) are: Needs Analysis Phase, Design Phase, Development Phase, Implementation Phase and the Evaluation Phase.
The Needs Analysis Phase starts with a performance gap. When AOP is less than EOP it is called an organizational performance gap. A performance gap can be recognized by low profits, inventory issues, employee turnover, grievances, future hold backs, lack of knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA??™s) etc. Once a performance gap is detected a company must then find its cause and determine the proper design to conquer its need.
The Design Phase will produce training objectives and factors in order to reach the need or performance gap identified in the analysis phase.
The Development Phase will produce the instructional material to meet the objectives and factors of the Design Phase. During this phase it is important to develop the proper methods, the necessary content, needed equipment and other possible materials to meet objectives of the TPM.
The Implementation Phase brings all the previous phases together to form training. It is very important to test your model because everything may not have gone as planned. Once you test your model positively you can then begin the Evaluation Phase.
The Evaluation Phase determines the success of you model. It has two stages; the Process Evaluation which determines the success of objectives in other phases, and the Outcome Evaluation which is conducted at the end of the training to determine the success of training on the trainee, the organization and the job.
2. Identify three factors that might inhibit HRD managers from developing a strategic planning approach to training. Recommend how these three factors might be overcome.
HRD manager can be inhibited from strategic planning by technical design issues, cultural issues and political issues. Technical design issues are issues in how products will be made and delivered. Cultural issues are beliefs and values of employees and political issues are shifts in power. These three factors must be strategically conquered to build support for the strategy. These factors can be overcome by HRD managers by OD methods of change. It is a nine step phase to a strategic approach. The first step would be to establish a compelling need for change. That change is related with a performance gap that I talked about earlier. Then you would set business objectives, determine cause, identify approaches for change, select an approach, implement the approach, evaluate the results, get feedback and finally make the change internally.
Other recommendations to overcome the issue factors might be to have a proactive and reactive strategy. A proactive strategy will catch issue before they happen and are used in long term goal setting. Reactive strategies are to catch the issue as it happens and should be used in short term.
3. Compare and contrast the behaviorist and the cognitive approaches to learning. Explain which is more relevant to training.
Behavioral approaches to learning are ways of learning by pleasant or non pleasant experiences. The consequences that come from certain processes or actions are behavioral methods of learning. There is positive and negative reinforcement to learning such as punishment and rewards. Behavioral methods of learning can exist through a lifetime as we are always experiencing new things. As you get older you will learn not to touch the stove when its on because you do not want to burn your hand again. Examples are such as feeding you pet treats for rolling over, the guy who bought an interesting book but fell into a pothole while reading and walking, or Skinners operant conditioning of rats.
Cognitive learning is a mental process. While you might still learn through experience, you will also learn by listening, watching, observing, etc. However, with cognitive learning you are creating more thought. You will go beyond pushing the behavioral standards and use assimilation and accommodation. Cognitive learning will build memory, thought and knowledge.
Behavioral approaches are more based on the surrounding environment while cognitive approaches are more controlled by the learner. I believe that a cognitive approach is more relevant to training in the workforce. It is important that motivation exists in learning and the desire to learn exists A cognitive approach embraces more of a desire to link past experience with new and make sense of something and a more relevant way of training.
4. Fully explain the purpose of a training needs analysis (TNA). Argue the
conditions under which a TNA is always necessary, and offer two examples
when a TNA might not be required.
Linked with the Training Process Model is a Training Needs Analysis. As stated earlier, when AOP is less than EOP, a performance gap exists and an analysis must be conducted to find the issue. The purpose of a TNA is to determine if training is necessary. There is no purpose in wasting money if there isn??™t a need for training. A TNA will provide levels of KSA??™s and also determine who will benefit from training. A TNA Model is made up of an organizational analysis, operational analysis and person analysis. TNA??™s will potentially benefit a business with process improvements, cost savings, improved profitability, performance improvement, behavioral improvements and increased staff satisfaction according to Quinn (2006).
A TNA is always necessary, however, not always required. A TNA will help determine whether training can correct the found performance gap and where the gaps lay. TNA??™s will reduce risk, can be proactive and reactive and overall will better a business whether small or big. TNA??™s are beneficial and will increase effectiveness and relevance to training in the organization.
In the process, managers may find that a TNA is not required. When training is necessary for al employees, a TNA may not be required. If a business is changing it??™s vision or there is an important legal concern a TNA would not be necessary, however, another approach to make the training available will be necessary. When a team requires team building skills a TNA would not be required. Again, this should be training as a whole since it is a team effort and not individuals. Research has shown that small businesses using TNAs are higher performers.