CRJ O10 INTRODUCTION TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE
STUDY GUIDE (CLASS NOTES)
THIRD EXAM: PUNISHMENT AND CORRECTIONS
2. Identify and briefly describe three types of sentences. 1. Fixed, Definite: 5 years, 10 years, 300 years 2. Indeterminate: 1-10, 5-10, 5-25 3. Indefinite: NO LIMIT
3. Identify and briefly describe seven sentencing options that are available to judges. Prison, Probation, Halfway House, Fine, Restitution, Community Service, Study Release.
4. Identify and briefly describe three sentencing models employed by different states. 1st: Legislative Models: Legislature controls sentences in penal code => Fixed Sentences 2nd: Judicial Model: Judge has power => Fixed Sentence with Discretion 3rd: Administrative Model: Parole Board makes release Decisions => Indeterminate Sentences
5. Identify and briefly describe five methods of execution that are currently used in the United States. Methods: Hanging, Electrocution, Firing Squad, Gas Chamber, Lethal Injection.
6. Identify and briefly describe six arguments in favor of the death penalty. 1. Lextalonis: An eye for an eye -> Defendant deserves it 2. Public is for it 3. Special deterrent: offender will not commit another crime. 4. General deterrent execution: => Prevent crime by public 5. Economics: Saves the state the cost of incarceration. 6. Humane: Better than life in prison
8. Identify and briefly describe four purposes of prisons. Purposes: Punish, Deter, Rehabilitate, Incapacitate.
9. Identify and briefly describe four prison security levels. Maximum, Medium, Minimum, Supermax.
10. Identify and briefly describe two purposes of classification. 1. Purpose: Treatment; Education, Drugs 2. Management: Separate sex predators, Child Molesters, High Escape Risks.
11. Identify and briefly describe three approaches or methods that states use in classifying inmates. 1. Reception Diagnostic Centers 2. Internal Classification Unit 3. No classification Unit
12. Identify and briefly describe five problems (i.e., ???landmines) that can undermine or negate the effectiveness of classification. 1st: Miss the diagnosis 2nd: Right diagnosis but recommend wrong treatment 3rd: Right diagnosis, right treatment.
13. Identify and briefly describe five causes of prison violence. 1. Homosexual conflicts 2. Economics 3. Gang Disputes 4. Racial conflicts 5. Protection Rackets 6. Personal disputes
14. Identify and briefly describe two prisonization theories. Deprivation theory: The subculture is a product of prison life
Importation Theory: The subculture is imported??¦A reflection of the world.
15. Identify and briefly describe six of Gresham Sykes??™s inmate roles. 1. Real Man: Do your own time, be tough, don??™t rat 2. Rat: Rats on others. 3. Gorilla: takes things by force 4. Merchant: Gets things, Drugs, Alc. 5. Center Man: Hangs out near the control center: friendly with guards.
16. Identify and briefly describe Gresham Syke??™s five pains of imprisonment. 1. Loss of Liberty 2. Loss of autonomy 3. Loss of material goods and services 4. Loss of heterosexual relations 5. Increased danger of victimization
17. Identify and briefly describe five characteristics of the guard subculture. 1. Emphasize security and control 2. Maintain social distance from the inmates 3. Be tough 4. Be smart 5. Be suspicious 6. Be loyal to other guards
18. Identify and briefly describe five types of treatment programs used in prisons. 1. Academic education 2. Vocational education 3. Psychological Services 4. Medical Services 5. Recreational Programs
20. Identify and briefly describe five types of community based corrections. 1. Probation 2. Parole 3. Work Release 4. Study Release 5. Halfway houses 7. Boot Camps
21. Identify and briefly describe seven goals or purposes of community based corrections. 1. Keep Offender out of prison 2. Provide rehabilitation services 3. Offender keeps job, supports family 4. Community protection 5. Reduces crowding in prison 6. Saves the state money 7. Reduces labeling avoids ??? convict??? label
22. Identify and briefly describe five factors that a judge may consider in deciding whether or not to place a convicted offender on probation. 1. Seriousness of crime 2. Prior record 3. Attitude of offender 4. Attitude of victim 5. Job and family 6. Prison crowding
23. Identify and briefly describe Daniel Glaser??™s four types of probation officers. 1. Punitive Officer; focuses on community protection 2. Welfare worker; focus on helping 3. Paternalistic; Combination of 1 @ 2 4. Passive Lazy=> NOT doing job
24. Identify and briefly describe five factors that a parole board may consider in deciding whether or not to release an offender. 1. Crime seriousness 2. Prior record 3. Job 4. Place to live 5. Attitude