Culture Acquisition in English Instruction and
Effective Intercultural Communication
1. The Purpose of the Study
Thus,in considering culture acquisition at school in this paper,the purpose will be to seek for the way of culture learning which leads to an effective intercultural
communication. In other words,the primary concerns sin this Paper are as follows: Firstly, what culture learning will be more likely to lead to the reduction of the impact of prejudice,bias?,and hostility between People based on cultural group memberships.
Secondly,what culture learning will make it possible for learners to prevent
miscommunication from occurring in intercultural encounters. Thirdly, what culture learning will equip the learners with knowledge,perspective and attitude to minimize the negative impacts on them and on others when misunderstanding or miscommunication does occur.. Finally,the author of the Paper Will make out a framework about what kind of culture learning is likely to lead to the effective
intercultural communication,and will Present several Principles on the basis of the framework. Then the Practices of the actual instructions will be examined on the basis of the Principles.
2.Communication and Culture
Gallois and Callna(1997) give us various perspectives how communication and
Culture interrelate with each other in real intercultural communication settings:
??¦to some extent,culture is communication,in that cultural knowledge,including values,Are communicated constantly(15).
??¦for many people the definition of culture is communication,as culture comprises the knowledge,beliefs,values,and Practices that are constantly transmitted in conversation,written communication,and non-verbal behavior(22).
3. The Effective Intercultural Communication
In terms of a number of strategies for intercultural Communication,Gallois and Callan(1999:153 ) summarize that all the Points have the goal of ???making the Communication less inter-group and more interpersonal???.In this way,the effective Intercultural communication can be defined as the state that the Personal identity is more salient. On the other hand,the ineffective intercultural communication will be defined as the state when the social identity is more salient.?·
4 .Culture Acquisition by Small Culture Approach
Holliday (1999)explains culture learning in terms of the
Large and small culture Approach as follows:
In the large culture approach culture learning tends to be???other,or???foreign??™directed. In contrast,in the small culture approach,culture learning will focus on searching for demarcating and observing the interaction between several cultures within a target scenario
5. Frameworks Aiming at Process Learning
This paper would like to make out an original frame of reference on the basis of several frameworks Which Hadley(1993)Presents in the book?·As a basic framework,the paper will adopt one of Lafayette(1988),Who maintains that culture is still the weakest component of our curricula,Partly because cultural material receives uneven treatment in textbooks and Partly because many teachers lack fist-hand knowledge of the culture and o/r appropriate techniques for teaching it.
Lafayette (1988)Provides a set of 13 goal statements that he groups into
Five categories. The goal statements are Presented in a somewhat modified form,incorporating the category r designations he describes as follows:
Group I: Knowledge of formal or???high culture : Students will be able to
1.major geographical monuments
2.majo historical events
4.major artistic accomplishments
Group ll: Knowledge of everyday ???Popular” culture: Students will be able to
5.???active,,cultural Patterns,consisting of functions or tasks related to everyday
living(such as eating,shopping,travels,obtaining lodging,etc.)
6.???Passive,,everyday cultural Patterns (consisting of underlying realities,such as Social stratification,work,marriage,etc.)
Students will be able to??¦
7.act appropriately in common everyday situations
8.use appropriate common gestures
Group III :Affective objectives: Students will be able to,
9,value different Peoples and societies
Group IV:Multicultural objectives: Students will be able to recognize/explain the culture of??¦
10.target language-related ethnic groups in the United States
11.non-EuroPean Peoples speaking the target language(Canada,Africa,South
GroupV: Process objectives: Students will be able to??¦
12.evaluate the validity of statements about culture
13.develop skills needed to locate and organize information; about culture(Based
6. Six Principles for Culture instruction
Culture acquisition should not be restricted to the learning of formal or???high,,
culture,but it should mainly include the learning of everyday or???Popular,,culture,which is more to do with our social environments.
Culture acquisition should be highly concerned with the aspect of verbal and
Nonverbal communication such as common wards and phrases,gestures,and behaviors. It should incorporate???Process learning,,so that it will sensitize learners to the interaction of communication and culture.
Culture learning should Provide learners with chances of transfiguration of their
viewpoints about the interaction of communication and culture.
An Example of Communication Activity: the Use of the Perception Checking
Culture acquisition should not be limited to the treatment of national or ethnic level culture,so that learner will acquire perspective diversity toward others.
Culture learning should not be equated with the learning of the culture of English speaking countries and peoples,nor the adaptation of it. It should deal with varieties of countries and Peoples,so that learners will appreciate the value of cultural diversity
Culture acquisition should place high priority on the learning of the culture of
learners??™own country and people.
Culture is communication. Thus culture acquisition should Provide learners with
chances of transfiguration of their viewpoints about the interaction of communication and culture,so that they will successfully cope with a new situation. Only learners have achieved the diversity of Perspectives,not in the stereotypical or Prejudiced Perspectives,the intercultural communication can be more interpersonal.