Identify Two Firms with Similar Problems but from Different Countries

PLAGIARISM.
A -The inportance of giving credit for work that is used that is not your own
B- What elements of writing need to be address to ensure academic honesty
C -The importance of telling the reader where your information is from when you are paraphrasing some one else.

D-The support that a tutor editor or proofreader can bring to the process

Why first of al it is just common courtesy if you have used someone else”s work the least you can do is offer by acknowledging him /her in addition to courtesy giving credit will help you to avoidplagiarizing using someone”s else”s ideas words or other creations with out clearly acknowledging where they came from is plagiarism and it will help outher”s get the help they need.

B- To do all your own work tell where you found your information dont cheat give his/her name

C- When you find information tell every one where you found your information so they can find the same stuff put down the name where you found it and the date it was wrote and by who wrote it.

D- Tutors can help if you find what you need and get you stared proofreaders can make sure it is done right and editor can show you how you can print it up so it is done right.it is easy all you have to do is think befor you do it and make sure thatyou get it right and turn it in on time so you get a good grade.

Culture Shock

HUE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF FOREGIN LANGIGES

CROSS ??“ CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
CLASS 2 ??“ GROUP 5

TOPIC: ??? CULTURE SHOCK???

HUE, MARCH 2011

I. Definition and some causes of culture shock :
When you move to a new place, you have to face a lot of changes. It is natural difficulty to adjust to a new culture. That is culture shock.
???Culture shock is the feeling of confusion and disorientation people experience when confronted with a large number of new unfamiliar people and situations??¦.??? (Gary Althen, 2003, p.266).
There are many causes of culture shock. Your environment – your surroundings, for example, has a very big effect on your appearance as well as behavior. When you go to a new place, such as a new country or even a new city, you often enter a culture that is different from the one you left. Sometimes your culture and the new culture are similar. Other times, they can be very different, and even contradictory. Another cause is that the differences between cultures can make you very difficult to adjust to the new surroundings. You may encounter unfamiliar clothes, weather, and food as well as different people, schools, and values, etc.
II. Some problems in culture shock
The first problem is language. Sometimes, people can speak new language well when coming to a new country. They think that they can adjust easier and have no difficulty because ???the newcomers only imagine the similarity between the two cultures??? (H? Th? M? H?u, 2001, p.55), and deny all differences. However, they can have some problems in non-verbal communication. Other people cannot speak new language fluently. They have difficulties in communicating and sharing their feeling with people around them. Therefore, they cannot carry out any activities, such as buying foods, doing job, etc.
Another problem is employment. It is difficult to find a suitable job in a new country because people evaluate you not only certificate but also your real ability. Besides, you also have some problems in working habits or working method. For example, in Vietnam, you work with many people and then the leader gives comment or congratulation to the whole group without only you. However, American people emphasize ???I???, your ability, so the leader gives comment or congratulation to only you. If you do not know it, you will shock when you are criticized or received bad comments.
In addition, eating habits are also important for you. You do not know many kinds of foods in a new country. For example, in Vietnam, most of foods are cooked with suitable flavor. Nevertheless, in Japan, most kinds of food are raw and fresh. This makes you have difficulty in eating them. Also, way of eating in a new country is different from your country. In Vietnam, if you are invited to go to restaurant, you can eat without paying money because the inviter will pay for that meal. However, in America, after eating, everyone will share money fairly together. Besides, in Vietnam, you can use chopsticks to eat but in other countries you have to knives, forks to eat, etc.
Language, employment, eating habits are some main problems in culture shock that you surely have when coming in a new country. Besides, you can confront other problems such as: housing, transportation, viewpoints, etc.
III. Your feeling towards culture shock:
At first, people are very excited about their move because they will learn a lot of interesting things outside their familiar everyday life. In fact, it is not similar as they think, so how do they feel
First of all, people feel very sad and disappointed because it is very different from their image about a new life. As the result, they eat, drink and sleep too much to forget everything. At that time, they are extremely homesick, so they want to come back home with their parents and old friends immediately. Perhaps because of the different behavior and language, they do not like contacting with other people around them. Therefore, they feel very lonely.
Another way is that they feel left out and misunderstood. For example, there are many various festivals in a foreign country, so they do not know what it is and how to take part in. Besides, when living in another country, they will develop negative and simplistic views of the new culture. I give you an example to illustrate this point. Kissing in France means that you say hello and goodbye to family and friends, even strangers. On the other hand, in our country it is not true.
The last way is that they do not have ability to work and study well as well as solve small problems because they feel very tired and cannot focus on them. In different situations, people express their own different feelings.

IV. Some tips to cope culture shock:

The differences between cultures can make us very difficult to adjust to the new surroundings. You may encounter unfamiliar clothes, weather, and food as well as different people, schools, and values. It can be very unsettling to deal with the differences. However, you will overcome difficult period at the beginning if you acquaint with some following tips in order to cope with cultural shock.

First of all, you should understand simply that a normal experience may in itself be helpful. Besides, keeping in touch with your close friend, family is always necessary. There are several means of communication you may use such as telephone, letter, fax, email. You should spend many hours in the Internet chatting with your friend at home. There is a Japanese student studying at America said that: ???I contacted with my Japanese friend, including one who had lived in London. She could understand my feelings….Taking to friends helps me to get through period??? (Mark Chandler, UK student life. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http: // ukstudentlife.com). This evidence can prove that ideas will make you feel more comfortable when living in a new milieu.

Another way will support of you easier is that making friend with international friends from your own culture or from others when you are at abroad. That Japanese student had taken part in a short course of calligraphy. She said that ???It is a good idea to take an adult education course, which gives you an opportunity to mix with local people??? (Mark Chandler, UK student life. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http: // ukstudentlife.com). They will understand what you are feeling, if possible, make friends with the local students, you can learn more about each others culture.

Also, if you take care of yourself not nutritional enough, this will have influence on your mood. Therefore, it is useful for you to find a supplier of familiar food such as fruits, vegetables, milk, fishes… You ought to eat a healthy and balance diet. Moreover, your life will be easy to adapt more when having familiar things around you that have personal meaning such as photographs. In addition, you will reduce your stress by doing regular exercises every day with a lot of sports such as swimming, skipping and so on. A fit body makes you feel more confident when communicating with everyone.

Being a student, it is convenient for you to use the university or college services with professional and experienced staff, for example, the health service, the counseling service, the international office or hall wardens will provide a friendliness and enthusiastic help. In particular, the orientation program offered by most universities and colleges can be a valuable way to meet people and find out things that can help you. Linking with a faith community will put you in touch with a familiar setting such as church, mosque…

An important tip is that you should maintain a balance between two cultural patterns of behavior and belief. Above all, you should change your personality to adapt successfully to another country.

The problems and ways of overcoming culture shocks are never exactly the same, but the pattern is usually similar. It is important to emphasis that culture shock is entirely normal, usually unavoidable, and not a sign that you have make a mistake or you will not manage. In fact there are very positive aspects of culture shock. You can learn a lot of significant experience and are more aware of aspects of your own culture as well as the new culture you have entered. It will give you valuable skills that will serve you in many ways now and in the future and which will be part of the benefit of an international education ( International students and culture shock. Retrieved March 18 from http//: ukcisa.org.uk ).

SOURCES:
Gary Althen, 2003, p.266
H? Th? M? H?u, Cross-cultural communication , 2001, p.55
Mark Chandler, UK student life. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http: // ukstudentlife.com
International students and culture shock. Retrieved March 18 from http//: ukcisa.org.uk

Culture & Organization

Reading 2

When working in the global commercial environment, awareness of the impact of the various cultural differences is one of the very important aspects towards the achievement of international business success. The improvement in the levels of cultural awareness can assist the companies in building international competencies and thus enabling the individuals to become more globally sensitive.

In the case of international business, the understanding of cultural differences and promoting cultural sensitivity will help in ensuring that the communication across borders is done more effectively and that the business transactions are successful.
It should be understood that each country has its own cultural standards of being, thinking, and acting, and these variations show a strong influence on the workplace values and also the business communication. The aspects that may be considered very much acceptable and natural in the workplace of one country, can indeed be considered as confusing or even offensive in the workplace of some other country.
It is a fact that every culture constitutes a unique mixture of different attitudes, values, as well as social expectations. When conducting business across various countries, it is important that the business representatives are rather provided with an understanding of the existing cultural differences and are able to be sensitive towards them.
Cross-cultural Management can be viewed as a program that aims to explore the various challenges and complexities that are related to the conduct of business across various cultural contexts. The executives who seek to do business across different cultures are encountered with the necessity of dealing with diversity. Cultures vary in terms of values and beliefs and these variations have the potential to shape all the dimensions of managerial practices ranging right from leadership, motivation, negotiation and the effective management of conflict.

Cultural considerations also form the basis to the definition of acceptable business conduct, and remain significant to the development of international standards around the business ethics, corruption and intellectual property, and these are the issues which shape some of the most effective business and trading relationships in the current world. Cross-cultural management deals with a wide variety of issues, some concrete, but others less tangible, but not of less importance, such as the significance of trust in international business.
The steps that can be taken to deal with the problem of various cultures are identifying the diversity, that is collecting data about the workforce of the organization, and then discover the differences that exist. It should be understood that cultures gather and process information differently, which is why certain management plans which seem logical to one (based on their culture) may not be followed by others. Misunderstandings can actually lead to both cooperation and communications barriers. These barriers can be lowered by means of discovering, accepting and learning about the work differences. The next step would be to develop a plan of action. The employees need to be helped regarding the development of a greater understanding of each others cultures. As the economy becomes more and more global, it turns out to be more vital to understand such aspects like diversity-of gender, race, culture, norms, values, information processing, comfort zones, and how to blend the various cultures within the organization into success.

Culture of Heavy Metal

Culture of Heavy Metal

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the Midlands of the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are generally associated with masculinity.

Major Genres of Heavy Metal

Heavy metal mainly consists of trash metal, black metal, death metal, power metal and Christian metal.
1. Thrash metal is a subgenre of heavy metal that is characterized usually by its fast tempo and aggression. Songs of the genre typically use fast percussive and low guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style work. Lyrics of thrash metal songs often deal with social issues, often using direct and denunciatory language, an approach which partially overlaps with the hardcore rock. The origins of thrash metal are generally traced to the late 1970s and early 1980s, when a number of bands began incorporating the sound of the New Wave of British Heavy Metal, creating a new genre and developing into a separate movement from punk rock and hardcore. This genre is more aggressive compared to its relative, speed metal, and can be seen in part to be a reaction to the lighter, more widely acceptable sounds and themes of glam metal.The “Big Four” bands of thrash metal are Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer and Anthrax who simultaneously created and popularized the genre in the early 1980s.
2. Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, shrieked vocals, highly distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, blast beat drumming, raw recording, and unconventional song structure. During the 1980s, several thrash metal bands formed a prototype for black metal. This so-called “first wave” included bands such as Venom, Bathory, Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. A “second wave” arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Darkthrone, Immortal and Emperor. The music of the early Norwegian black metal scene became a distinct genre.
Black metal has often been met with hostility from mainstream culture, mainly due to the misanthropic and anti-Christian standpoint of many artists. Moreover, several of the genres pioneers have been linked with church burnings and murder. For these reasons and others, black metal is usually seen as an underground form of music. Additionally some have been linked to neo-Nazism, however many black metal fans and most prominent black metal musicians reject Nazi ideology and oppose its influence on the black metal subculture.
3. Death metal typically employs heavily distorted guitars, tremolo picking, deep growling vocals, blast beat drumming, minor keys or atonality, and complex song structures with multiple tempo changes.
Building from the musical structure of thrash metal and early black metal, death metal emerged during the mid 1980s. Metal acts such as Slayer, Kreator, Celtic Frost, and Venom were very important influences to the crafting of the genre. Possessed and Death, along with bands such as Obituary, Carcass, Deicide and Morbid Angel are often considered pioneers of the genre. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, death metal gained more media attention as popular genre niche record labels like Combat, Earache and Roadrunner began to sign death metal bands at a rapid rate. Since then, death metal has diversified, spawning a variety of subgenres.
4. Power metal scene came together largely in reaction to the harshness of death and black metal during the late 1980s. Despite a relatively underground style in North America, it enjoys wide popularity in Europe, Japan, and South America. Power metal focuses on upbeat, epic melodies and themes that appeal to the listener??™s sense of valor and loveliness. The prototype for the sound was established in the mid-to-late 1980s by Germanys Helloween, which combined the power riffs, melodic approach, and high-pitched.
Many power metal bands such as Floridas Kamelot, Finlands Nightwish, Italys Rhapsody of Fire, and Russias Catharsis feature a keyboard-based “symphonic” sound, sometimes employing orchestras and opera singers. Power metal has built a strong fan base in Japan and South America, where bands like Brazils Angra and Argentinas Rata Blanca are popular.
Closely related to power metal is progressive metal, which adopts the complex compositional approach of bands like Rush and King Crimson. This style emerged in the United States in the early and mid-1980s, with innovators such as Queensryche, Fates Warning, and Dream Theater. The mix of the progressive and power metal sounds is typified by New Jerseys Symphony X, whose guitarist Michael Romeo is among the most recognized of latter-day shredders.
5. Christian metal is a special form of heavy metal music usually defined by its message in a songs lyrics as well as the bands dedication to Christianity. Christian metal is typically performed by professed Christians sometimes principally for Christians who listen to heavy metal music and many times produced and distributed through various Christian networks.
Christian metal bands exist in all the subgenres of heavy metal music. The only common link among most Christian metal bands is the lyrics. The Christian themes are often melded with the subjects of the genre the band is rooted in. It has been argued that the marginal yet transnational Christian metal subculture provides its core members an alternative religious expression and Christian identity, and that the music serves the purpose of offering a positive alternative or counterbalance to secular metal music which is known for its generally dark and negative message.
Christian metal emerged in the late 1970s as a means of evangelism to the wider heavy metal music scene, and was pioneered by the American Resurrection Band and Swedish Jerusalem. Los Angeles Stryper achieved wide success in the 1980s, otherwise the genre was mostly ignored by the mainstream. Californias Tourniquet and Australias Mortification led the movement in the 1990s. The metalcore groups Underoath, Demon Hunter, As I Lay Dying, and Norma Jean brought some mainstream attention to the movement in the first decade of the 21st century, achieving ranks in the Billboard 200.
Image, Fashion and Physical Gesture
As with much popular music, visual imagery plays a large role in heavy metal. In addition to its sound and lyrics, a heavy metal bands image is expressed in album art, logos, stage sets, clothing, and music videos. Some heavy metal acts such as Alice Cooper, Lordi, and Gwar have become known as much for their outrageous performance personas and stage shows as for their music.
Down-the-back long hair, which is the most crucial distinguishing feature of metal fashion originally adopted from the hippie subculture. Long hair gave members of the metal community the power they needed to rebel against everything.
The classic uniform of heavy metal fans consists of blue jeans, black T-shirts, boots and black leather or jeans jackets. T-shirts are generally emblazoned with the logos or other visual representations of favorite metal bands. Many metal performers of the 1970s and 1980s used radically shaped and brightly colored instruments to enhance their stage appearance. Fashion and personal style was especially important for glam metal bands of the era. Performers typically wore long dyed hair; makeup such as lipstick and eyeliner; gaudy clothing, including leopard-skin-printed shirts or vests and tight denim, leather, or spandex pants; and accessories such as headbands and jewelry.
Many metal musicians when performing live engage in head banging, which involves rhythmically beating time with the head, often emphasized by long hair. The corna, or devil horns, hand gesture, also widespread, was popularized by vocalist Ronnie James Dio while with Black Sabbath Although Gene Simmons of Kiss claims to have been the first to make the gesture on the 1977,there is speculation as to who started the phenomenon.
Attendees of metal concerts do not dance in the usual sense. There are two primary body movements that substitute for dancing: head banging and an arm thrust that is both a sign of appreciation and a rhythmic gesture. The performance of air guitar is popular among metal fans both at concerts and listening to records at home. Other concert audience activities include stage diving, crowd surfing, pushing and shoving in a chaotic moshing, and displaying the corna hand symbol.
Smart Students Like It

While a number of heavy metal songs and albums feature violent imagery, profane lyrics and markers for dangerous behavior, scientists did a survey and find gifted students who feel the pressure of their ability could use heavy metal music to get rid of negative emotions. Those students said they did not consider themselves to be metalheads but identified with specific aspects of this culture. They spoke specifically about using heavy metal for catharsis, literally using the loud and often aggressive music to jump out frustrations and anger. Smart students like it because they are more aware of how stressful life is, and luckily there is heavy metal to help them channel those emotions and do something constructive.

Reference
1.???????”??”???????????
2. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior
3. The Rough Guide to Heavy Metal
4. The Peculiar Case of Christian Metal Music
5. www.wikipedia.org/
6. www.examiner.com

Identify the Five Phases of the Training Process Model (Tpm)

This report will cover the basis of human resources strategic planning, learning theory, and training needs analysis as incorporated in business. It will help to understand the necessity of the three and when and how to apply them for training needs.

1. Identify the five phases of the training process model (TPM); explain fully the process that goes on in each of the phases.
A training process is developed and implemented by businesses to meet organizational needs, and in return the organization will improve, training value will increase, employees will gain more knowledge and skill and more training will likely occur. A training process usually begins with a triggering event. This happens when managers realize that the actual organizational performance (AOP) is less than expected organizational performance (EOP).
The five phases of the Training Process Model (TPM) are: Needs Analysis Phase, Design Phase, Development Phase, Implementation Phase and the Evaluation Phase.
The Needs Analysis Phase starts with a performance gap. When AOP is less than EOP it is called an organizational performance gap. A performance gap can be recognized by low profits, inventory issues, employee turnover, grievances, future hold backs, lack of knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA??™s) etc. Once a performance gap is detected a company must then find its cause and determine the proper design to conquer its need.
The Design Phase will produce training objectives and factors in order to reach the need or performance gap identified in the analysis phase.
The Development Phase will produce the instructional material to meet the objectives and factors of the Design Phase. During this phase it is important to develop the proper methods, the necessary content, needed equipment and other possible materials to meet objectives of the TPM.
The Implementation Phase brings all the previous phases together to form training. It is very important to test your model because everything may not have gone as planned. Once you test your model positively you can then begin the Evaluation Phase.
The Evaluation Phase determines the success of you model. It has two stages; the Process Evaluation which determines the success of objectives in other phases, and the Outcome Evaluation which is conducted at the end of the training to determine the success of training on the trainee, the organization and the job.

2. Identify three factors that might inhibit HRD managers from developing a strategic planning approach to training. Recommend how these three factors might be overcome.
HRD manager can be inhibited from strategic planning by technical design issues, cultural issues and political issues. Technical design issues are issues in how products will be made and delivered. Cultural issues are beliefs and values of employees and political issues are shifts in power. These three factors must be strategically conquered to build support for the strategy. These factors can be overcome by HRD managers by OD methods of change. It is a nine step phase to a strategic approach. The first step would be to establish a compelling need for change. That change is related with a performance gap that I talked about earlier. Then you would set business objectives, determine cause, identify approaches for change, select an approach, implement the approach, evaluate the results, get feedback and finally make the change internally.
Other recommendations to overcome the issue factors might be to have a proactive and reactive strategy. A proactive strategy will catch issue before they happen and are used in long term goal setting. Reactive strategies are to catch the issue as it happens and should be used in short term.

3. Compare and contrast the behaviorist and the cognitive approaches to learning. Explain which is more relevant to training.
Behavioral approaches to learning are ways of learning by pleasant or non pleasant experiences. The consequences that come from certain processes or actions are behavioral methods of learning. There is positive and negative reinforcement to learning such as punishment and rewards. Behavioral methods of learning can exist through a lifetime as we are always experiencing new things. As you get older you will learn not to touch the stove when its on because you do not want to burn your hand again. Examples are such as feeding you pet treats for rolling over, the guy who bought an interesting book but fell into a pothole while reading and walking, or Skinners operant conditioning of rats.
Cognitive learning is a mental process. While you might still learn through experience, you will also learn by listening, watching, observing, etc. However, with cognitive learning you are creating more thought. You will go beyond pushing the behavioral standards and use assimilation and accommodation. Cognitive learning will build memory, thought and knowledge.
Behavioral approaches are more based on the surrounding environment while cognitive approaches are more controlled by the learner. I believe that a cognitive approach is more relevant to training in the workforce. It is important that motivation exists in learning and the desire to learn exists A cognitive approach embraces more of a desire to link past experience with new and make sense of something and a more relevant way of training.

4. Fully explain the purpose of a training needs analysis (TNA). Argue the
conditions under which a TNA is always necessary, and offer two examples
when a TNA might not be required.
Linked with the Training Process Model is a Training Needs Analysis. As stated earlier, when AOP is less than EOP, a performance gap exists and an analysis must be conducted to find the issue. The purpose of a TNA is to determine if training is necessary. There is no purpose in wasting money if there isn??™t a need for training. A TNA will provide levels of KSA??™s and also determine who will benefit from training. A TNA Model is made up of an organizational analysis, operational analysis and person analysis. TNA??™s will potentially benefit a business with process improvements, cost savings, improved profitability, performance improvement, behavioral improvements and increased staff satisfaction according to Quinn (2006).
A TNA is always necessary, however, not always required. A TNA will help determine whether training can correct the found performance gap and where the gaps lay. TNA??™s will reduce risk, can be proactive and reactive and overall will better a business whether small or big. TNA??™s are beneficial and will increase effectiveness and relevance to training in the organization.
In the process, managers may find that a TNA is not required. When training is necessary for al employees, a TNA may not be required. If a business is changing it??™s vision or there is an important legal concern a TNA would not be necessary, however, another approach to make the training available will be necessary. When a team requires team building skills a TNA would not be required. Again, this should be training as a whole since it is a team effort and not individuals. Research has shown that small businesses using TNAs are higher performers.

Culture of Democracy

The Culture of Democracy:
Realizing the Self and Responsibility

The difference between governance of a society and the culture of that society is that the governance is a system, whereas the culture is a reflection on the effectiveness of that system. The expressiveness of the people of a society is going to be determined by how they are ruled; not because people from different nations are born either more or less self-expressive, but because certain forms of governance do not foster or in some cases even allow self-expression and advancement. Democracy is sort of the Holy Grail when working toward a successful community. If a particular nation successfully achieves democracy, the world can look at them as free, self-sufficient, and progressive. However, democracy entails more than just a rigid set of rules or a few theoretical principles. In order for democracy to work, the people need to be willing to make it work. In this sense, there is indeed a culture of democracy. A culture of democracy requires its citizens to be civically involved, concerned for the general well being of their society, and active in voicing these concerns as well as meeting solutions for them. Indeed, there is a culture of democracy.
At their very cores, government and social institutions exist as means to deal with innate social problems and conflicts. Democracy is then one form of doing away with conflict, but with certain stipulations that require agreement from the various groups that contribute to society. When groups assume democracy is simply a tool for them to push for their own particular interests and to pursue their own demands, it is possible that dissention will cause the democracy to fail from the inside out. Likewise, if the governing body uses too much force in order to maintain consensus among groups, the regime can become little more than a totalitarian state and crumble under the pressure of the government. So, a balance must be maintained in which the governed and the governance both apply equal pressure and uphold certain basic principles so all institutions are legitimate in the eyes of society.
Democracy on its own cannot simply suffice to maintain consensus in society. Citizens in a democratic society have to recognize that there is going to be both intellectual and political conflict, and that compromise and tolerance are necessary. Citizens must take an active role in society and realize that democracy is less about choices between things that are absolutely right and absolutely wrong is rather about finding various ways to interpret rights and priorities within a society.
First, let??™s explore Almond and Verba??™s take on civic culture. The closest thing to a culture of democracy is their third and most effective form of civic culture, which they have deemed ???participant???. In a participant civic culture, citizens and government actively interact to make changes, improvements, and interpretations to the political and social structure of the community. A participant culture is necessary for democracy because democratic states require the influence of the people first and foremost in order to succeed. Participant culture also requires compromise from groups. Almond and Verba say, about interest groups in society, ???…these memberships are not politically cumulative but are often conflicting, thus individuals tend to moderate and combine interests in their own minds in order to reduce conflict” (8).
In Almond and Verba??™s theoretical cases, interpersonal trust is paramount in establishing a truly participant civic culture. Moreover, rational participation needs to take precedent over emotional participation. That is to say, people must strive to push the issues that they feel will be necessary and beneficial to themselves and the common good rather than what they might feel is morally just; the two can and often do differ, which is one of the more difficult aspects of democracy. An example of this, if I may allow myself a tangent, is the death penalty. If one person murders another in our nation, we, by law and moral code, judge them to be in the wrong. What we struggle over, however, is the way in which we punish them. Some states upkeep the death penalty, and some do not. Do we punish murder with a righteous ???eye for an eye??? mentality, or do we do it with a more refined, legally sound method of trial, conviction, and long-term imprisonment More so, if enough people feel strongly in support of the death penalty, where does democracy end and pure barbaric punishment start Is life something that democratic process is suited to handle The answer is not easily afforded. What the answer is, though, is sought after by the will of the people in each respective state of our country.
From that example I digress; rational participation also means setting aside one??™s own agenda, wants, and beliefs in order to consider those of others in their society and to effectively act as a citizen in order to better the entire society in a democratic fashion. With all of this having been said, perhaps one of the most important aspects of any society, but a democratic one in particular, is the education of its people. In order to have citizens that actively rationally participate, a society must first have educated citizens. It is virtually impossible to have a functioning democracy when the citizens themselves are completely uneducated about the democratic process and the rights they possess as members of such a state.
Education is further important in a democracy because of the direct correlation education has to democratic practice. Educational content and practice within the citizenry fosters means for democratic governance. When democratic ideals are understood by the citizens they provide the ability to think independently and spawn new ideas which in turn will lead to a dynamic democracy. Again, there is no one blueprint for democracy. Just because democratic principles are put in place does not guarantee the success of democracy. Therefore, active participation by the citizenry is required as is the acceptance by the population of compromise and tolerance. The fundamental idea that democracy at its core is a system for the people by the people, positive change is attainable by their participation. A basic difference between a totalitarian regime and a democratic society is that in the former, education is not education at all, but rather a general forced acceptance of circumstances by the people. The democratic educational system therefore should not at all be a means by which the government can brainwash citizens, but rather be defended and contributed to just as other basic rights are defended.
While authoritarian societies attempt to squander the independent thought of citizens and instill a passive acceptance into the general public, democracy seeks to cultivate citizens who are independent, intelligent and capable, but who also understand the process by which democracy is achieved and the role that they can play in the overall democratic process. People are not born knowing what is necessary for them to achieve true freedom; the way that democratic political and social arrangements are put into place and the way they work are learned, which is why those living in authoritarian societies do not necessarily have the knowledge of what can cause change. The process of understanding democracy begins in our school system, but it does go on to continue throughout life in civic involvement. Some citizens also continue to learn throughout their own exploration into the sources of information offered by free society.
Almond and Verba also stress interpersonal trust as a huge necessity for a truly civic culture. While civic society does not require that every individual person necessarily likes every other individual; it does require that each person respect and tolerate their fellow citizen. Because the fundamental mechanism that powers democracy is the people of a given civic society, there is (ideally) no room for displays of racism, bigotry, hatred toward one another, or dissention. On this notion, the team writes:

?????¦political parties, interest groups, and the media of communication??”are analogous to the veins and arteries of a circulatory system. Unless they are connected effectively with the primary structure of community–family, friendship, neighborhood, religious groups, work groups, and the like??”there can be no effective flow of individual impulses, needs, demand, and preferences from the individual and his primary groups into the political system.??? (13)

In a democratic culture, interpersonal trust means that each member of the process respects others??™ part in that same process, and that everyone at the core works as one. This is not to say that each person is not a distinct individual, but rather that??™s each individual??™s responsibilities are equally as important in maintaining the democratic way of life and contributing to civic society.
Society finds its own truth through democratic processes. Different ideas and individuals will clash, compromise, and ultimately be used or discarded. Solutions are not based on ideology but rather their ability to applied to real world situations, and can then be debated over and changed if necessary.
The first step in transitioning into democracy is in fact the realization of the people that their current governance is not sufficient. Once they realize this, the people must unite to overturn the authoritarian regime that rules them. However, since the democratic transition process does lie heavily in the hands of the people, there are many ways in which the entire process can fail. Andrew Wachtel??™s Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation focuses on the reasons why after the collapse of the Yugoslav state, many of the fragmented countries were unable to unify into a democratic nation state. Wachtel thinks that the disintegration of the Yugoslav nation occurred not because the socioeconomic conditions of the nation forced a massive collapse; instead, that the collapse was inevitable after the idea of one single Yugoslav nation had been destroyed. If the idea of a Yugoslav nation had been kept as an ultimate goal, then after the political and social structure had been torn down, a rebuilding would have occurred theoretically ending in at least a few multinational states??”if not one giant multinational state??”rather than multiple uninational states.
At the very heart of democratic action is coalition building. It promotes peaceable relations between different interest groups in order to effectively reach goals and to not stifle some groups??™ progress, at least in theory. Democracy and self-governance does not guarantee the prevention of mistakes, or strife, or social issues, but it does grant the power and possibility of public assembly and debate in order to mend problems. It allows groups to meet and resolve differences, can promote economic and social advancement, and most importantly promotes the ???self???, so that each individual within a society can express their own personality, views, and associations; a fundamental difference that separates a democratic culture from a totalitarian one.
If there is no general sense of social or political community across differing groups following the breakdown of a nation, then there is not chance that the rebuilding of institutions is going to be successful. If ethnic nationalism takes precedent over the state, then creating a pluralistic and multinational state in which democracy can thrive becomes impossible. This is exactly what happened in the southern Slavic states??”different ethnic groups such as Serbs and Croats could not put aside their cultural differences to assemble a larger, more diverse culture in which they could be tolerant of each other. Wachtel also says that the fault laid on the central government as well:

???By leaning toward “brotherhood” and away from “unity”, the governing Communist party encouraged citizens of Yugoslavia to see themselves first and foremost as members of a specific national group. The establishment of a “separate but equal” cultural policy allowed certain members of the cultural and political elites to ally themselves with preexisting nationalist undercurrents, destabilizing the compromise that had been in effect since the end of the war. Although it was believed that giving the various nations more autonomy would reduce tensions…this did not happen…at the expense of a rapidly weakening center.??? (30)

Another important characteristic exclusive to democratic societies is the ability of the people to ultimately control the destiny of their own state. When citizens are free, they hold the responsibility of being active in civic society and being concerned about the welfare of themselves and those around them. Again, in this way, civic culture promotes sense of self not found in totalitarian states. This is not to say that in a totalitarian state, the individual people do not have their own hopes, dreams, feelings, and talents. The major distinction though, is that democracy allows for the expression of all of these personal characteristics, whereas authoritarian regimes usually do not.
Is it, however, possible to have a region within a nation that is a prime example of civic culture, while the nation itself still carries a culture of authoritarianism Can a country, unable to establish democracy, still contain microcosms of democratic society Nicolai Petro??™s case study of Novgorod in Russia proves the answers to these questions to be a resounding ???yes???. Novgorod managed to maintain an extremely democratic feel and a culture in which citizens were actively involved. Petro attributes the success of Novgorod to its history before the Soviet Union as a center of trade and cultural interaction. He also makes it a point to highlight Novgorod??™s active civil infrastructure. As Novgorod attempted to get on its own feet free of the grip of Moscow, local businesses came together as well as various civic and political institutions in order to achieve that common goal.
Mikhail Prusak, the governor of Novgorod at the time of Petro??™s study, was extremely charismatic and believed in using old symbols reminiscent of Novgorod??™s rich history such as the church in order to create a sense of grassroots and organic community. In a way, this is sort of pulling on the help of historical memory in order to bring citizens closer and in order to create a sense of unity. Once the civic culture is strong and the members of a community have a general sense of respect for one another, then democratic sentiments are bound to shine through. Remembering Novgorod??™s medieval history is helpful in order to instill the thoughts of a time before the Soviet age, before any authoritarian rule was forced on the nation. Historical memory is an extremely useful tool in promoting democracy and independent thought. The first phase in Novgorod was simply to dismantle Soviet sentiments, and Petro writes:

???…During the second phase, from roughly 1994-1998, civic leaders sought out specific symbols from Novgorods medieval past to help them define a new, long-term vision for the region. In the third phase, which has lasted from 1999 until today, the government has become acutely conscious of the politcal utility of Novgorod symbols and has adopted them quite overtly to build political support for its policies” (146)

Using historical memory to craft Novgorod??™s own rich history into something seemingly epic, the people have an ideal to strive for. In doing this, citizens are reminded that they are their own and do not belong to anybody else??”a very fundamental pillar of democracy, and a very prevalent characteristic of cultures that do carry an air of democracy.
It is important to note that throughout each study, education, self-expression, and self-worth and responsibility are all stressed in truly successful democratic societies, and in civic cultures that work. While people are inherently individual, the culture in which they are fostered always determines their level of self-expression within the culture itself. Clearly, democracy does not necessarily precede civic culture, as illustrated by the Novgorod case, however a truly civic culture is necessary for a successful democracy and will often give rise to a democratic culture anyway. There is certainly a culture of democracy that involves individuals in a society working together, not as drones or as brainwashed parts of a big machine, but rather as independent thinkers and doers who have the power to come together in order to control their own fates.
A democratic culture means the understanding of the people that they have the ultimate responsibility of taking care of their own communities. Democracy is not a set of rules, but the idea that rules can be made by the people of a society in order to best suit their needs and their interests. A democratic culture means peaceable compromise between conflicting groups, and also means consensus when an outside force threatens the group as a whole. What a democratic culture will not do is create citizens disinterested in their government and way of life; it will not create people who sit idly by while their communities take turns for the worse.
Democracy gives the reins to the people, unlike any authoritarian regime ever has. On its own, democracy does not serve to make any absolute promise of success or of failure. Rather, democracy offers the opportunity to the people of a society to work together in order to determine their own success or failure as a society.

Almond, Gabriel. Verba, Sidney. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton University Press, 1963. Princeton NJ. 122-160.

Petro, Nicolai. Crafting Democracy: How Novgorod Has Coped with Rapid Social Change. Cornell University Press, 2004. Ithaca NY. 146-180.

Wachtel, Andrew. Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Culutral Politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford University Press, 1998. Stanford CA. 172-226.

Identify Sources of Support and Information for the Setting Up and Running of Your Home Based Childcare Business.

1.6 Identify sources of support and information for the setting up and running of your home based childcare business.

Once deciding to become a child carer you are required to:
Have the appropriate qualifications, training and skills, as set out by the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). This framework ensures all childcare providers – including childminders- adhere to the same guidelines. Local career advisers in colleges can advise you what qualifications are required.
Register as a childminder where you need to attend a local childminding pre-registration briefing session. The session tells you about becoming a childminder. To find out about sessions you would contact the local Family Information Service (in England or Wales), the Scottish Childminding Association in Scotland and the NICMA, the childminding Association in Northern Ireland.
After reading the National Standards and application pack needs to be completed which is given at the briefing session. The form is then returned to your local Ofsted.

Once you??™ve registered: you need to attend introductory training courses in childcare practice. It is also legal requirement that you hold a current paediatric first aid certificate at the point of registration – this first aid training must be approved by your local authority and must follow guidelines set out in the Early Years Foundation Stage. These approved courses can be sought through the local authority in my area and/ or Family Information Service.

Initial training needs to be completed within six months of registering to become a childminder and provides an introduction to starting a childminding or nanny business. This is the ???first step??™ in an on going career, ongoing training will follow throughout the childminding career.
Essential Training is delivered by the National Childminding Association In England (and Wales), full details can be found on there website.
Once you register you have to Apply to the Criminal Records Bureau for a police check on yourself and anyone in your home aged over 16 in England and Wales (Known as the Disclosure Scotland in Scotland and Access Northern Ireland in northern Ireland).
Have an Ofsted or equivalent body home inspection and suitable person interview, based on the EYFS. Information and advice on this process can be given by the Family Information Service or National Childminding Association.
Start up grants may be eligible in England and Wales to help pay for initial costs involved in starting a childcare business, such as buying toys, safety equipment, insurance, registration fees and other ???tools of the trade??™ , information and help applying for this funding can be found at Jobcentre Plus and/ or local council. lnformation and contact details if you do not know where they are, also any services mentioned above can be found at local libraries, with free access to the internet, local children??™s centres, preschools and midwifery/ health visitor staff at doctors surgeries.

Once receiving your registration certificate you have too:
Apply for public Liability Insurance, if you are planning to use a car, contact current car insurer.
Register as self employed with HM Revenue and Customs, by contacting HMRC self-employed helpline (0845 915 4515) or visit the website where there is advice and an online registration.
The National childminding Association have negotiated special rules for childminders expenses with HM Revenue and Customs, for further information you can contact the NCMA or visit there website.

To begin to set up a childcare business or get ongoing support the services below can help;

Family Information Service (FIS)

The family information service provides free impartial information and guidance on a full range of childcare and children??™s services and resources. The service can help me because it offers help for:
People wishing to set up a new childcare provision
People wishing to become registered childminders and providers of childcare services.
Parents / carers lists of registered childminders in their chosen area with current vacancy information and the services provided which can be important to promoting my business.
Has an early years and childcare sufficiency Team who support existing and prospective providers.

National Childminding Association (NCMA)

NCMA can help you understand you own responsibilities running a childcare business, and can provide you with the tools and support needed to help make a business work, give you help and advice on courses requirements and relevant resources. All information and contact details needed can be found on there website.

The Business support officer
An advisory service offering help starting up a new childcare business and the best way to make it successful. Also offering support for existing childcare services. The business support officer aim to sustain and keep your service open through effective business planning.

Cypop 5 Understand how to set up a home based childcare service Kerry Marie Mills

Pre-learning alliance
Centre code – 779007
Pin- 30115072
URN- 2524517712

Culture of Conflict

Culture of Conflict
Ala Z. Shbib
WRI 102: Reading Across Currclm
Zofia Reid
American University of Sharjah
April 5th, 2010

All over the world there are nearly 195 countries and every single country has its own culture. Culture is the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular society and between every country there are certain conflicts or disagreements. Despite of the tremendous development that mankind has achieved there are armed conflicts; blood is being shed, and also other unarmed ones occur. The question that arises is that why there are conflicts between cultures Conflicts rose from differentiation in religious believes, getting hold of natural resources, and imperialism.
Religious conflicts arise by the kind of people who do not accept other believes and stick to the word and not the spirit of their scriptures so they fight those who do not follow what they believe in. Some fundamentalists believe that they are God??™s tool to spread the religion, have divinely right; and other conflicts are of sectarian nature. Muslim fundamentalists believe that modernization which influenced even Muslim countries has resulted in evil deeds and behavior. They see themselves as God??™s tool to correct behavior and remove regimes looking forward to make the whole world submissive to Islam. Zack Beauchamp (2007) in his essay titled ???Islamic Fundamentalism Causes Terrorism??? argued that ???Al Qaeda??™s goal is not merely to drive the west out of the Middle East but to establish a new caliphate that will create an Islamic world order???. Furthermore, Muslim Brotherhood groups are pressurizing governments to implement Islamic Sharia being the word of God. Revealing the group??™s goals, Hasan al-Banna the founder and Supreme of Egypt??™s Muslim Brotherhood said: ???That a free Islamic state may arise in this free fatherland, acting according to the precepts of Islam, applying its social regulations, proclaiming its sound principles, and broadcasting its sage mission to all mankind??? (al-Banna, 2008, p. 20). The group has and is still pressurizing the government to become a Muslim country despite the fact that there are minorities of other religions such as Christians. Should a government do not positively respond the result would be ???Jihad??? attacks and blood shedding. In addition to killing, persecution is another result of religious conflict. Israel killed, blockaded, and imposed curfew on the Palestinians in order to push the Palestinians leave their land. The Jews believe that they are divinely chosen people and that the land of Palestine is promised by God to be given to Abraham as per the Old Testament. In the name of religion, they are fighting not only the Palestinians but also have aggressive attitude towards any nation or individual who may oppose their cause. The Jews lobbied and described whoever opposes their cause as anti-Semitism. They succeeded in spreading this propaganda worldwide through the United States of America. As Richard Webster (2005) a British essayist, author, and scholar said: ???The root cause of anti-Semitism in the Middle East can be found in the history of that region, especially in Palestine. Without a solution to the conflict between the Palestinians and the Israelis, anti-Semitism can only increase in the Middle East???. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is between people of different origin. However, there are conflicts that occur within one community. Sectarian unrest is found within one society depriving people from social and economic development. Muslims and Christians are fighting in Nigeria, for example, over power. The north of the countries is Muslim, whereas, the south is Christian. Most fights and attacks are centered in Jos which is located half the way between the north and the south. Several sectarian clashes between Muslims and Christians in Nigeria have resulted in deaths, burn of churches and displacement from homes of thousands of Christians (Wikipedia.org). In spite of the lap of hundreds of years over the first spark of hatred, Muslims and Hindus in India are unable to live harmoniously and are fighting up-to-date. Instead of paying efforts to help the multi-sectarian country live peacefully, the ethnic nature conflict was supported by the ruling Hindus party Bartha Janata. Muslims form a minority ethnic group in the multi-sectarian country which is of Hindus and Sikh. The hatred between the two sects is dated back to hundreds of years and in the eyes of many Hindus no Muslim can ever truly belong to India (countercurrents.org, 2003).
Getting hold of natural resources such as fertile land, oil, and water is another cause behind conflicts in the world. Land is the most important resource for living and the key to wealth and power and individuals who do not have lands are treated as inferior and subsequently cannot enjoy their legitimate rights. Some African countries have this kind of conflict within their boundaries. Dr Mona Ayoub a teacher of local government and public administration at the University of Khartoum said: ???Sudan??™s conflicts have many causes, but at the root of each conflict are questions over the control and distribution of resources??? and continued saying that Darfur ??“ a region in Sudan ??“ people and government are fighting for the sake of the wealthy and fertile agriculture lands which led to have conflicts between the Midoub and Berti in Northern Darfur and the Beni Halba and Fur in Southern Darfur (c-r.org, 2006). Furthermore, conflicts occur when the government puts its hand on a land where people are living and force them to move in order to use this area for an incompatible use such as a dam or natural resource development making the moved citizens react violently. Countries such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Mozambique are examples of citizens suffering from their government??™s treatment (usaid.gov, 2005). No matter how much rich a country is, it always seeks for more and more resources of wealth even if it had to violate norms, ethics and even neighborhood rights in order to achieve its goal. An armed savage attack was done by Iraq against its neighbor Kuwait in August 1990 over oil. Iraq has invaded Kuwait to get hold of the oil-rich country claiming it is one of its cities. Defending its welfare in the Gulf, the United States, which is the main importer of the Kuwaiti oil and its neighbor Saudi Arabia, rushed to kick out the Iraqi army. Michael T. Klare (2008) the Five College Professor of Peace and World Security Studies at Hampshire College in Amherst, interviewed by Julian Brookes an editor of MotherJones.com, said: ???So when George Bush, Sr. announced U.S. intervention in the Persian Gulf conflict in 1990 it was explicitly to protect oil, the oil of Saudi Arabia. And that led to a massive deployment of American forces to the region, to the acquisition of more military bases, and later to the quarantine of Iraq???. However, keeping its military bases in the region, the USA aggravates another tension and fears of war in the Middle East. As well, conditions of conflict may escalate when countries attempt to get hold of resources in other countries. The United States, Russia, China, and Japan are trying to control the sources of the natural gas in Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia. Klare addresses in the same interview that this is not going to have an immediate conflict but will create the conditions in which a local conflict can escalate into something very much bigger. Although scientists have found alternative to oil and gas for producing energy such as solar and wind energy, they are unable to generate water, the source of living on earth, and the cause behind conflicts among countries. Such conflicts are found especially in areas where there is scarcity of water and high population. In the Middle East there are conflicts between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq on the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers and also between Israel, Jordan, Syria, and the West Bank on the Jordan-Yarmuk River. The problem with Turkey, Syria, and Iraq is that around 70 percent of the Tigris-Euphrates River is being used by Turkey leaving Syria and Iraq with insufficient water. Christine Drake (2003) is a professor of geography in the Department of Political Science and Geography at Old Dominion University in Norfolk said: ???…, Syrias claims that Turkey is deliberately reducing the flow of the Euphrates are countered by Turkeys claim that the region suffers from periodic droughts???. Moreover, Scarcity of water has aggravated conflict between fighting nations such as the Arabs and the Israelis. Israel, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank are in conflict on the water of the Yarmuk ??“Jordan Rivers. ???The economies and societies of the countries in the basin of the Jordan-Yarmuk are very vulnerable to any restrictions in their water supplies; hence, the situation is highly volatile??? (Drake, 2003).
In the animal world, the head of a group of bulls, for example, is determined after fights occur and the strongest survive. Having such an attitude represented in practicing imperialism in political, economical and social forms of domination, is more or less inhuman. When a country sees itself superior and has the power, it tries to dominate other countries and control destines of what it sees ???inferior countries and communities??™. For instance, the United States has exploited the tension and political vacuum in Afghanistan and the region to have control on it. Instead of genuinely help that area settle down, America has used individuals such as Osama bin Laden, and militias such as Taliban aggravating the tension in the region. In 1979 the CIA cooperated with the Pakistan??™s ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) to reduce the Afghan??™s energy which led to have tens of thousands of radical mujahedeen consequently emergence of Taliban in Afghanistan (Roy, 2005). As well, Osama Bin Laden was America??™s tool to carry out terror attacks. Roy (2005) continued in her article and said about Osama Bin Laden ???He??™s America??™s family secret??? (p. 343). The US, has appointed itself the president of the one-pole world and is playing a policing role not only in this region but also in the whole world. ???President Bush??™s ultimatum to the people of the world ??“ ???Either you are with us or you are with terrorists??? ??“ is a piece of presumptuous arrogance. It??™s not a choice that people want to, need to, or should have to make.??? (Roy, 2005, p. 344). Unlike the earlier military occupation, a modern type represented in controlling countries via economy has appeared and dominated countries have no choice but to accept. China, for example is happy with the transfer of Western factories to its lands. However, despite the fact that such transfer has helped in offering job opportunities, it negatively impacted levels of wages and pollution in China. In a letter to the editor (1994) published in The New York Times ?????¦, workers in the newly industrializing countries have little choice but to work for low wages if they are to earn a living.??? Instead of assisting undeveloped countries adopt technology, the developed world thought only of reducing costs of their industries and making more profits by transferring factories into low-waged countries. Moreover, some countries were deprived from getting technological needs as a penalty imposed on them because they were not ???obedient??™. In 2002, America has asked the Syrian government to cease supporting terrorism which is representing in sheltering Hamas. Syria does not see Hamas as a terrorist group but rather a land and right defender. As Syria refused to listen to the dictated orders, America imposed different sanctions including a ban on military and dual-use technology exports to Syria (niacouncil.org, 2002). However, controlling other nations did not stop at economy but went deeper to invade culture and life style. Globalization was the term created by the West to impose culture, habits, ethics and life style that they believe should prevail in the whole world. The West urged other nations to open up claiming that such would bring nations closer. Such cultural invasion or social imperialism was subject to debates and opposition especially at conflicted areas such as the Middle East. Scaring from penalties should they disobey; and aiming at proofing openness with the West, some Arab TV channels, for example, has purchase the title of Western TV shows and produced Arabic versions such as the famous shows ???American Idle??? and ???Star Academy???. These shows resulted in having a generation whose only measurement of modernization is to what extent a person lives the American lifestyle in all aspects. As these shows present cultural concepts ethics and morals contradict with those of Arabs and Muslims, governments are struggling to help protect morals of youths and maintain the identity of their nations. This is not only the situation in Arab countries but also in communities across the world. Mortimer B. Zuckerman (2006) said that: ???The only things that “every community in the world from Zanzibar to Hamburg recognizes in common” are American cultural artifacts–the jeans and the colas, the movies and the TV sitcoms, the music, and the rhetoric of freedom???.
Many analysts argue that conflict between countries is necessary for them to boom in all fields of life. Mario Vargas Llosa sees that conflicts between nations can be solved through globalization be it social or economic. He argued in his article ???The Culture of Liberty??? (2005, p. 249) ???Globalization will not make local cultures disappear; in a framework of worldwide openness, all that is valuable and worthy of survival in local cultures will find fertile ground in which to bloom???.
Despite that globalization might improve and boom nations; it makes people fight for their identity, and increases poverty and civil wars. Therefore, not only Arab and Muslim governments are struggling to protect their culture and identity, but also in Western countries such as the French government organized campaigns in defense of a French ???cultural identity??? supposedly threatened by globalization as many of their industries such as fashion and dining, theater and art were negatively affected following the invasion of American fast food, fashion, and movies (Llosa, 2005, p. 244). ? As well, globalization has negative impact on society as it increases poverty and promotes civil wars. For instance, with globalization India??™s industry is getting affected by the open market and the removal of import restrictions. Vandana Shiva (2004) stressed that for many people in India, globalization has created for them poverty and destitution. Moreover, globalization creates conditions for the civil war to occur in societies. Steven Staples (2005) said: ???There are more wars being fought today??”mostly in the Third World??”than there were during the Cold War. Most are not wars between countries, but are civil wars where the majority of deaths are civilians, not soldiers???.
Living peacefully and harmoniously on Earth is the dream of people who believe in everyone??™s right to share life equally. However, people and nations will never reach that point, nor they will have agreement on every life aspect because the reasons behind having conflicts are considerably permanent. The number of conflicts might decrease or they might be less severe but there will be no way to avoid conflicts because all the time there will be people who are obsessed with religious ideologies, have the desire to get hold of natural resources, conquer the world, play a policing role, or dominate the world.

References
Al-Banna, H. (2008). Between Yesterday and Today. In J. Calvert, Islamism: a documentary and reference guide (P.20-25). Greenwood: An imprint of Greenwood Publishing
Group, Inc.
Asian Workers Lift Themselves by Bootstraps; A Job for Labor. (1994, Dec 28). [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times, p. NA. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Ayoub M. (2006). Land and conflict in Sudan. C-r.org. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.c-r.org
Beauchamp, Z. (2009). Islamic Fundamentalism Causes Terrorism. Greenhaven Press Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Drake, C. (2003). Water Scarcity Could Cause Conflict in the Middle East. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource database.
Hayashi, H. (2002, September 18). Are Sanctions on Syria a Way to Get at Iran Niacouncil.org. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from

National Iranian American Council


Klare, M. T. (2008). U.S Pursuit of Oil and Natural Gas Resources Creates Conflict in the Middle East. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Llosa, M. V. (2005). The Culture of Liberty. In G. H. Muller, The New World Reader (p.343-350). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Perry, A. (2003, August 5). Indias Great Divide. Time Magazine. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://www.countercurrents.org
Persecution of Christians. January, 2010. Wikipedia.org. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org
Roy, A. (2005). The Algebra of Infinite Justice. In G. H. Muller, The New World Reader (p.339-344). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Shiva, V. (2004). Economic Problems Cause Terrorism. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Staples S. (2005). Globalization Promotes War. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
United States Agency International Development, From the American People. (2005). Land & Conflict. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from http://www.usaid.gov/
Webster, R. (n.d.). Europeans Shaped the Fanatical Anti-Semitism of Militant Muslims. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center database.
Zuckerman M. B. (2009). The Prevalence of American Culture Creates Anti-Americanism. Greenhaven Press. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource database.

Identify Sources of Current Guidance for Planning Healthy and Safe Environments and Services

There are many different sources of current guidance that educational settings can use in order to plan for a healthy and safe environment or service including the following:
Health and Safety Executive(HSE)
Department of Education
St Johns Ambulance
The British Red Cross
British Standards Institute(BSI)
Child Accident Prevention Trust(CAPT)
Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)
Ofsted
Royal Society for the prevention of Accidents (ROSPA)

The Health and Safety Executive covers all aspects of Health and Safety in all work environments and also provides guidance for those specifically working with children. It provides advice on specific topics such as accident reporting, risk assessments, manual handling, control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH), provision and use of work equipment(PUWER), school trips and managing the movement of vehicles both on and directly outside school premises.

The Department of Education is responsible for all areas of Education and Childrens services. With regards to supporting a healthy and safe environment it offers advice on bullying, pupil health and wellbeing, child protection issues, school transport, computer and internet safeguards and teaching standards.

The Child Action Prevention Trust work to reduce the number of children and young people killed, disabled or seriously injured in accidents. They achieve this by offering families and professionals access to safety information with regards to common injury types, common accident locations, eg.gardens, roads, water, and safety equipment and standards. This is achieved by the wide availability of factsheets, website access, booklets, posters and DVDs. Expert support is also available to offer one day training courses for child safety or risk management and can help develop in house Accident Prevention Strategies.

The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA) work to save lives and reduce injuries. They offer advice to schools on Health and Safety in school by way of advice sheets to include one for school trips and also other general school activities. They also advise heavily on road safety and the development and implementation of the National Healthy school Standards. They also are striving to ensure that Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education (PSHE) is included in the National curriculum in the future.

The St. Johns Ambulance follows the Health and Safety at work Act 1974 and takes into account all aspects of first aid. They offer hands on training to both adults and children. They also offer a website facility designed to make teaching first aid in the classroom fun and simple. Awards and competitions for schools to work towards and participate in are also available. Also offered are resources to promote healthy living and safety awareness for young children up to young adults.

The British Red Cross provide childrens first aid training and staff training daysin order to plan and provide a safe environment. They also offer information on PSHE.
The British Standards Institute (BSI) ensures that items manufactured and used in this country meet certain criteria to ensure safety, reliability and effectiveness eg electrical items and toys. They also offer background information on safety symbols for teachers and information and interactive activities for children.

The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) framework offers advice on the three prime areas for a young childs healthy development, these being;
Communication and Language
Physical and Personal Development
Social and Emotional Development.
It is a structure which carers of children up to the age of five, including reception classes, must use to enable children to learn through a range of activities, mostly play, in a safe environment.

Ofsted is the Office for Standards in Education which inspect and regulate services, including schools, which provide services and education to children. They are able to offer advice on all aspects of school life , including Safety and health topics.

Culture Clashes

Mergers Don??™t Always Lead to Culture Clashes
Karen Maijala
CJA 473
July 28, 2010
Simeon Tyler

The individual assignment is to read the case study, Mergers Don??™t Always Lead to Culture Clashes, and answer the 4 discussion questions that follow the case study. The subject of this exercise is the merging of Bank of America and credit card company MBNA and how these two companies avoided culture clashes. This paper will summarize the case study and then conclude by answering the 4 discussion questions.
Corporate culture has been defined in many ways. Geert Hofstede, a Dutch academic who studied the subject intensively, defines it as ???the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organization from another??™. Edgar Schein, a professor at MIT??™s Sloan School of Management, says it is what a corporation ???has learned as a total social unit over the course of its history??™. Many managers, more prosaically, say it is ???the way we do things around here??™. Others prefer to call it the set of values that the firm holds most dear (Hindle, n.d).

The BOA and MBNA merger seemed doomed from the beginning because of culture differences. MBNA employees were accustomed to the high life whereas BOA was a low-cost, no-nonsense corporation. MBNA corporate headquarters was described as lavish and their employees enjoyed high salaries and perks such as a private golf course, and a fleet of corporate jets and yachts (in text).
To try to manage the cultural transition, executives of both companies began by comparing thousands of practices covering everything from hiring to call-center operations. In many cases, BOA chose to keep MBNA??™s cultural practices in place. In other cases, BOA did impose its will on MBNA (in text).
One difference of cultural practice was the dress code of each company. MBNA had a formal dress code, but BOA had a business casual dress code. Both companies compromised and the outcome was the formal dress code would remain for the credit card division and dealing directly with customers, and the business casual remained otherwise. Both companies agreed to keep one of the fleet of jets and to donate the private golf course to the state. Some MBNA employees left because of pay cuts but most employees stayed. Although many different cultural clashes existed between MBNA and BOA, the two companies were able to work out their differences, and their merger was a success.
Case Study
A lot of mergers lead to culture clashes and, ultimately, failure. So in 2005 when banking giant Bank of America (BOA) announced its $35 billion acquisition of credit card giant
MBNA, many thought that in a few years, this merger would join for heap of those done in by cultural differences. MBNA??™s culture was characterized by a free-wheeling, entrepreneurial spirit that was also quite secretive. MBNA employees also were accustomed to the high life. Their corporate headquarters in Wilmington, Delaware, could be described as lavish, and employees throughout the company enjoyed high salaries and generous perks??”from the private golf course at its headquarters, to its fleet of corporate jets and private yachts. Bank of America, in contrast, grew by thrift. It was a lowcost, no-nonsense operation. Unlike MBNA, it believed that size and smarts were more important than speed. It was an acquisition machine that some likened to Star Trek??™s relentless Borg collective. In short, the cultures in the two companies were very,
very different. Although these cultural differences seemed a recipe for disaster, it appears, judging from the reactions of BOA and MBNA employees, that the merger has worked. How can this be BOA had the foresight to know which MBNA practices
to attempt to change, and which to keep in place. Especially critical was BOA??™s appreciation and respect for MBNA??™s culture. ???On Day 1, I was directed that this was not like the ones you are used to,??? said Clifford Skelton, who had helped manage BOA??™s acquisition of Fleet Boston Financial before moving on to MBNA.
To try to manage the cultural transition, executives of both companies began by comparing thousands of practices covering everything from hiring to call-center operations. In many cases, BOA chose to keep MBNA??™s cultural practices in place.
In other cases, BOA did impose its will on MBNA. For example, because MBNA??™s pay rates were well above market, many MBNA managers were forced to swallow a steep pay cut. Some MBNA employees have left, but most have remained. In other cases, the cultures co-adapted. For example, MBNA??™s dress code was much more formal than BOA??™s business casual approach. In the end, a hybrid code was adopted, where business suits were expected in the credit card division??™s corporate offices and in front of clients, but business causal was the norm otherwise. While most believe the merger has been successful, there are tensions. Some BOA managers see MBNA managers as arrogant and autocratic. Some MBNA managers see their BOA counterparts as bureaucratic.
What about those famous MBNA perks As you might have guessed, most of those have gone away. All but one of the corporate jets is gone. The golf course was donated to
the state of Delaware. Gone too, are most of the works of art that hung in MBNA??™s corporate offices.

In what ways were the cultures of Bank of America and MBNA incompatible
BOA and MBNA were incompatible because MBNA was a lavish, high income company whereas BOA was a low-cost, no-nonsense corporation. MBNA employees were given many perks such as a private golf course, and a fleet of jets and yachts.

Why do you think their cultures appeared to mesh rather than clash

Do you think culture is important to the success of a merger/acquisition Why or Why not

How much of the smooth transition, if any, do you think comes from both companies glossing over real differences in an effort to make the merger work
It is not easy to change a company??™s culture. And there is no single wonder drug that can be taken for a cure. Any program of change takes time and has to contain a number of different elements:
??? Culture is created largely at the top of an organization. If the CEO decides that exclusive parking spaces for senior managers are to be abolished, that sends out a clear signal that the organization intends to be more democratic. If the boss wears an open-neck shirt to meetings, others tend to follow.
??? The type of people that a company recruits sends out strong signals about its culture. If it hires masses of over-confident MBAs straight out of business school and puts them on fast-track careers then it is likely to cause offence to other less favored employees. In practice, of course, companies??™ recruiters tend to recruit people like themselves (because, after all, what??™s wrong with them). Hence there is a continual tendency to reinforce the existing culture.
??? Some businesses have a distinctive culture that others try to change at their peril.
California??™s Silicon Valley has set the style for the computer industry, for example, where hierarchy is kept to a minimum and the dress code is casual. The movie industry, by contrast, is populated by moguls and stars, with a strict caste system and more formal dress. When AOL, a software firm, and Time Warner, a publishing and film-production business, came together in the late 1990s, the contrast between their two distinctive cultures almost brought the merged business to its knees. Some industries??™ cultures have been changed by new arrivals with a distinctive approach. The traditional national airlines, for example, have become much less stuffy since the appearance of Virgin and the low-cost airlines, and online retailers have thoroughly shaken up industries from newspapers to auction houses.
??? Changing the external environment can change a culture. Remove a US manufacturing plant south of the border into Mexico and watch the change. But the move need not be so far. Most new US car-manufacturing plants today are being built in the southern states of the United
States where the culture (and particularly the attitude of the trade unions) is very different from that of Detroit in the north, the nation??™s traditional home of car manufacturing.

References
Hindle, T. (n.d). Culture clashes. Retrieved from
http://www.ultimatebusinessresource.com/images/hindle.pdf
Robbins, S. P.; Judge, T. A. (2009). Organizational behavior (13th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Pearson/Prentice Hall.