Identify Learners Needs and How I Will Assess Them


This assignment will look at and identify learner??™s needs and how I will assess them.

The assignment will also look at a group of individuals, their background and barriers to their learning, needs, styles and how they develop learning.

The college

The Engineering department at Henley College has been functional for forty years, working with a wide range of students from different areas in and around the city. The engineering department offers a wide range of courses for both young and old, experienced and inexperienced students.

Student Services

Student services has many internal links as well as external links which the student can take advantage of. They can offer a wide range of advice support and information from educational aspects to personal information. They have the contacts to make referrals to specialist organisations where necessary for a student.
Once a student has enrolled on a course they can have access to the relevant department, speaking to the appropriate people and access to the course tutor to discuss any special arrangements that may need to be made.

There is also an additional Support Manager who can assist the student by:

Making any arrangements for specialist support i.e. for students with sensory impairment from the SASU (Student Access & Support Unit), who provide initial and diagnostic assessments, in class communication, one to one tutorials and other continuous support, which may be required.
Arrange for any materials, which may require changing, or adapting.
Negotiating with external exam boards to provide assistance with any special arrangements or considerations for any examinations i.e. additional time or consideration to assistance with understanding/reading.
By arranging for preliminary dyslexia testing by referring to an Educational Psychologist for a formal assessment for course and examination support.
Student First

Henley College??™s philosophy is to always place the ???student first??™. The college is committed to providing support to help the student succeed in his/her achievements.

This involves providing information on the various subjects and courses, offer advice and support on careers and higher education after the college education has completed, providing information on finance for the student, personal counselling services and guidance, provides information on accommodation.

The Students ??“ First stage of Enrolment

When a student enrols onto an engineering course, the programme manager will interview the student; prior to the interview the programme manager will have the benefit of a school report from their application. The school report will assist with the advice and information needed to ensure the student is enrolled on the correct course for their appropriate level of study.
During this initial interview the course tutor (who is present at the interview) will establish the support the student may require and an individual learning plan is developed.
Throughout the duration of the course there will also be regular reviews that will be undertaken, to ensure the student plans and learning requirements have not changed or may have developed.

These reviews are individual and are designed to be student specific taking into account the student support requirements needed.

The students are encouraged to participate fully to develop learning programmes. This is specific for each student and used to keep track of the student??™s additional needs or further studies.
Written and numerical support is offered, to meet the individual??™s requirements for their specific academic programmes.
Long-term consistent support is offered as well as short-term support.

This is dependent on the individual students specific requirements. The support is tailored to each students specific requirements and needs.
The college is flexible and adaptable to ensure it caters for as much of the required support that it possibly can provide, and will do as much as it possibly can do to endeavour it can provide as much of this personal support.

Assess learners

The group that I have chosen to describe in relation to the criteria for the assignment are the Performing Engineering Operations (PEO) level 2 2004-2005.

This group are in their first year of study within the college and if successful in completion of the course, they will then advance to the Btec National Certificate year 2, which is a one-year course, the next academic year. The ages within the group are of limited range with the majority of the students being between 17-20 years old.

There were 14 students at the beginning of the year, there are currently 10 students remaining on the course.

The entry requirements to be considered for a place on the Btec year 2 course, are 4 GCSE pass??™s at grade ???C??™ or above. Maths, English and a Science subject are mandatory; the students are required to have this for entry qualification for level 2.

By having a minimum entry requirement for the course, it will mean that similar level of academic ability students will be on the course as they have obtained a similar level of education.

The students on this course will have come from many different backgrounds and schools. This may have had an impact on their achievements in their GCSE??™s. By this I mean as they have attended different schools and each individual will have come from a different environment. Some students are able to achieve the academic success easily where some students may have to struggle with support and understanding. This will have an impact on the level of confidence of the student when attending the course. Some students may have a high level of confidence whereas others may have a low level of confidence having an impact on how they may settle on the course.

The problems that the students face academically can be identified before the student takes up place on a course, the basic skills test (explained further on). This can clearly benefit the student and help with the early transition and with the settling in period within the new working environment at the college as Reece and Walker state ???It is evident that a very important task for you is to make learning as easy and enjoyable as possible for your students???.

Support from the college and the lecturer can help in many different ways, by additional educational support where a student is finding it difficult to understand a subject or topic, or personal support and encouragement to help confidence to assist them on the course. This is explained in the initial assessment further on. Some of the students on the course are more confident in their academic ability whilst others require encouragement and some support during the lecture and guidance on individual assignments.

For those that require additional help, I??™ll will sit down with them individually and repeat or clarify any issues they have with the topic. This may be directly after a lecture or during breaks where I may have been approached for clarification. I will also ensure that I keep a close look at these individuals to keep them on track for the learning materials covered in a session. When they require additional help with assignments I??™ll offer support and guidance and encourage them. This has helped, as the students are not then holding up other students in their group by slowing down the lecture but can then have personal support and guidance where they feel weak in an area. Also the students are happier to discuss their difficulties in private rather than in the whole group where they may feel intimidated by their fellow students. Their confidence is then still high and they are happier knowing that they can ask without reservation for additional support or guidance.


I have every confidence that this type of support will allow the students to achieve their maximum potential and also to have a significant impact on the college??™s support programme. I am convinced that the effectiveness and appropriacy of this support enhances the learning experience for students at the college. I am impressed with the weekly tracking system designed that the student uses.

Books from college library

Teaching and training in post ??“ compulsory education second edition published in 2003 by ??“
Andy Armitage
Robin Bryant
Richard Dunnill
Mandy Renwick
Dennis Hayes
Alan Hudson
Janis Kent
Shirley Lawes

Teaching in further education ??“ fifth edition by L. B. Curzon published 1997

Teaching, training and learning 5th edition by Ian Reece and Stephen walker published in 2003

Internet searched website on 12/05/05


Ian Reece and Stephen Walker (2000) Teaching, Training and Learning.

Initial assessment

Initial assessment will help identify a learner??™s skills against a level or levels within a specified course. Learners may have different levels of reading, writing, numeracy and language skills.? Initial assessment is often used to help place learners in appropriate learning programmes.? This is done at Henley College online (see appendix 1) where students will carry out the test to see if any additional support is required to help him or her with their studies. The test involves answering a number of questions on both literacy and numeracy, which upon completion an overall score is given which will determine if any additional support is required in that particular area.

After the assessment

The results from the assessment test (a copy is attached) will determine how much support is required to that particular individual who scored lower than they should be expected to achieve entry for that level of course. If a number of students scored a lower result than expected then a support teacher will be added to the course to support the students who require additional help.
The support teacher will help and assist the less able students in the course and help with any literacy and numeracy skills they may struggle to perform.
The results of the assessment test will help guide me when preparing all the information required for a lesson. By this I mean the teaching and learning styles I will use in the lesson as well as how I present the handouts, and give clear explanations or go into more detail (if required) when explaining certain topics. Also depending on the amount of support the student requires can determine which type of resource to use to improve their area of development.


Self-assessment is a process by which the students will learn more about themselves, what they like, what they dont like, and how they react to certain situations. Knowing this information can help the lecturer determine which occupations and work situations could be better for the students.
The self-assessment can help determine the approach that should be taken when teaching that particular group of students. On the self-assessment, if the student has ranked himself or herself poor or good against the course content, then the tutor will know how much support is required in that area.

Ice breaking

Ice breaking is a very useful technique to use in initial assessment. It??™s carried out by dividing the students into groups or pairs and allow them to find out information about each other i.e. name, where their from or work on a task and share their finding to the other students. This allows the teacher to find information about the students and also how their interact with one another and confidence. This also creates a friendly atmosphere within the group so they feel more relaxed from when they first arrived in class.

Culture Andethnocentrism

Unit Two
Culture and Ethnocentrism
American Intercontinental University
Professor Kenya Lawton
August 24, 2013

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The research contained within this paper will give a logical definition to the meaning of culture. Also discussed are the factors that impact a person??™s culture; examples of these factors are values, societal norms, symbols and most importantly language. Also described in this research is cultural relativism and ethnocentrism. An evaluation of my own thoughts regarding ethnocentrism toward a foreign film and a conclusion as to why cultural relativism must be utilized more will also be discussed.

Culture and Ethnocentrism
According to the Editorial Board (2012), culture can be defined as a shared idea of life amid an assembly of individuals which impacts thoughts, opinions, behaviors, and beliefs. Again, according to the Editorial Board (2012), even though cultures tend to vary widely, most have common components; for instance, values, norms, symbols and even language. Many may not identify their techniques when utilizing ethnocentrism, but maybe in perusing this research papers explanation and explaining my personal ethnocentrism will assist the reader in fully gaining and understanding for the fact that we all unconsciously utilize ethnocentrism in our day to day lives. There is the hope that this research will guide all readers to work toward utilizing the practices of cultural relativism. It is important to respect the differences in another culture, only then will you be closer to understanding them.
There are several universal elements that make up different cultures. An example of this is the creation and use of symbols that reflect shared meanings across cultural lines. An example of a universal symbol is a nation??™s flag. Each country on this earth has a flag that represents them. However, each country??™s flag has a different meaning. For the United States, the flag stands for liberty and freedom. In India, the bovine is a sacred symbol as it represents the earth as they give to us without wanting or asking for something in return.
Language is probably the most important universal symbol, as it allows communication between members of a culture and is taught through generations. According to Dictionary (2013), the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that the languages that humans use determine the structure of the real world as it is perceived by them. Every culture has principles and values in which they believe and pursue as a standard for the way of life in decision making and what individuals may desire. A great example of this is the society of the United States; and the view of the ???American Dream.??? The ???American Dream??? is the societal belief that anyone can achieve their goals and dream; they just have to work for it. Inside a culture, there are social controls in place to guide persons with expectations and rules of everyday life, these are norms.
Individuals tend to judge other cultures by comparing and contrasting it with their own. According to Negy, Shreve, Jensen and Uddin (2003), ethnocentrism has been utilized since its introduction, and refers to viewing one??™s own culture with more positivity than another??™s based on the standards set by one??™s own group. This is quite common and occurs because the standards of one culture may not be appealing to another. A great example of ethnocentrism is how ???Western culture,??? judges and views Muslim women when they are seen wearing a Niqab, or basic headscarf. A real life instance of this example is when Zaiba Malik wore a Niqab for the purposes of documenting her experiences while wearing it. According to Zaiba Malik (2006), after the passing of only a few hours she had gotten used to the leering looks and snickering, and was unsurprised that fellow passengers on a bus would not sit next to her but rather stand. This is an instance where cultural relativism should be utilized. If ???Western societies??? claim multicultural acceptance, people should accept a Muslim woman??™s right to wear a Niqab and accept it is an expression of their religion.
Foreign documentary with Indian culture
???Marathon Boy??? directed by Gemma Atwal, is the foreign documentary film chosen to be viewed for this assignment. This particular documentary follows Budhia, a boy from an impoverished area of India. Apparently when he was four years old his mother sold him for 800 rupees to Biranchi, a renowned Judo coach that trained him to run marathons. Budhia was surrounded by controversy as his notoriety soared for being young and running marathons, especially after he collapsed after running a long distance; which caused Indian officials and the trainer to fight over the boys??™ welfare. Regardless, of the cast society in this country, and the fact he was born in the slums; Budhia had a chance at social mobility class because the family he was given to was in a higher class. When watching this film I was definitely conflicted because even though the boy seemed to like running, it seemed his trainer enjoyed the limelight more, and pushed him too hard. To add to my conflicting emotions was the fact that the life of running was obviously better than the life he would have had with his mother.
Biranchi, the trainer, was eventually killed, and was honored in the traditional Hindu funeral Pyre after a procession in which he was honored by mourners throwing flowers while being paraded down the street. According to kermeliotis (2011), Pyre is a thousand of years old process of disrobing the dead, putting them on piles of wood, and setting fire to the body and wood. The entire documentary was slightly strange to me, especially the funeral practices, but in my own culture I am accustomed to burying our loved ones in a cemetery after a service in a funeral home, church or even a home.
In conclusion, all cultures believe that their belief structure is superior to others. However, to make this world a better place for all humans, we need to learn that one culture is not better than another even though they may be widely different; acceptance and respect is important. A very important question to ask oneself is would you want to be judged solely on ones values or beliefs For me, the answer is no, and what I have learned from this assignment is to not judge others based on their culture but rather learn about them so I can gain understanding and respect for them.
Editorial Board. (2012). Introduction to sociology. Schaumburg, IL Words of Wisdom.
Retrieved August 18, 2013 from
Kermeliotis, T. (2011). India??™s burning issue with emissions form Hindu funeral pyres. Road to Durban. Retrieved August 23, 2013 from
Malik, Z. (2006). ???Even other Muslims turn and look at me. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from
Negy, C, Shreve, T, Jensen, & Uddin, N. (2003). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and ethnocentrism: a study of social identity versus multicultural theory of development. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Retrieved August 19, 2013 from PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. (2013). In Dictionary. Retrieved August 24, 2013 from

Identify Key Aspects of Current Legislative Requirements and Code of Practice Within My Specialist Area.

Explain own role, responsibilities and boundaries of own role as a teacher.

As a Teacher/Assessor, teaching in the lifelong learning sector, my roles, responsibilities and boundaries are qualities I often assess and reflect on using the teaching/training cycle.
Firstly, my main responsibility is to identify the learner??™s training needs, learning styles and what motivates them to learn. At my workplace, I conduct interviews/inductions with the learners using various assessment methods such as Initial Key Skill Assessment in Basic Literacy/Numeracy, Diagnostic Testing, and Individual Learning Plans. This initial assessment enables me to acquire vital information about the learners such as their ages, cultural differences, abilities, aspirations/motivation and learning styles. There are many theories associated with how learners learn.

Honey and Mumford (1986) suggests that people learn well either by doing something (activist), by thinking back on something (reflector), by investigating ideas and concepts (theorist) or by finding relevance or association (pragmatist). The most simple to understand theory is the VAK Analysis, which suggests that people learn using their visual senses (sight), auditory senses (hearing) and kinaesthetic senses (doing). Individual learners will exude different learning styles and it is my responsibility to provide a mixture of these learning experiences as part of my planning/teaching strategy, thereby meeting individual needs and stimulating greater learning.

My role as a planner enables me to design and plan the course programme on my specialist field (i.e. childcare and early years). Most Awarding bodies have given boundaries to which the courses should be outlined, thereby limiting my input to mainly planning the course timetable (i.e. showing what units to cover and how long the course will run for) and also to plan and prepare lesson sessions for each unit within the courses programme.

My role as a resource developer is paramount. I deliver learning through the use of power point presentation, video clips, handouts, role play, and case-study/scenarios. This in effect, creates a more interesting way of delivering learning.

My role as an information provider is mainly directed towards the learners. As a trainer/assessor of childcare, I have acquired over the years knowledge, skills and experiences within the childcare industry to be confident enough to want to pass them onto prospective learners. I work for a training provider and part of my job roles is to organise and teach a 31/2hr weekly study sessions for prospective childcare practitioners. First impression counts to the learners and so I employ my organisational and communication skills which help me to manage my teaching time effectively, to balance my talking/listening skills and also to deliver the course.

This is where I assume the role of a learning facilitator. I achieve this role by encouraging learners to work together in groups, storming up ideas about key subject areas and all I do is to support/review their ideas rather than to be a dispenser of Information.

My role as an assessor comes into play as I need to know what the learners have learnt. At my workplace, I assisted in producing a workbook which consists of different assessment methods such as Reflective Accounts, Written and Extended Questioning. The key assessment methods that I use are Direct Observations, Professional Discussions and Oral Questioning. These methods help me assess the learner??™s performance and knowledge in comparison to the set standards. My responsibility is to assess fairly, give constructive feedback on the learner??™s progress and also to record learner??™s achievements and reviews accurately.

As a role model, I often lead by example and consequentially encourage the learners to progressively reflect on their personal growth and career development. My responsibility is to monitor, evaluate and improve the quality and effectiveness of my teaching practice. At my workplace, I give out Evaluation forms to the learners in order to get feedback which could indicate changing needs and therefore requiring the need to re-evaluate the course delivery.

My main boundary as a teacher is the teacher/learner relationship. This I mean as to be friendly but not too friendly. I have a duty of care towards the learners to assist them in gaining their qualification favourable to their learning needs as well as that of the Awarding bodies.


Learning Styles ??“ Honey and Mumford (1986)
Gravells VAK Analysis (2008)

SNVQ Assessors Handbook by Kelly Hill

Identify Issues of Equality and Diversity and Ways to Promote Inclusion.

? Identify issues of equality and diversity and ways to promote inclusion.
Looking at equality and diversity is an extremely large subject covered by legislation including the Equality Act 2010 which covers the following
? Race (including ethnic or national origins, colour and nationality)
? Sex
? Sexual orientation
? Disability
? Religion or belief (including lack of belief)
? Gender reassignment (trans-sexuality)
? Pregnancy and maternity
? Marriage and civil partnership
? Age
So in the context of learners I have to look at:
? Entitlement
All students are entitled having their work marked and returned to them in a reasonable time. When marking work it is crucial to return it to students with outcomes positive or constructive so that they have an understanding of their own progress and if it requires any alteration it can be done whilst it is relatively still fresh in their minds. Any complaints should be dealt with quickly and sympathetically. That students have access to the awarding bodies appeals procedures. Support for any learning difficulties and or disabilities. Information with regards to any changes in teaching sessions allowing students enough time to amend any changes they need to make within their own personal lives. Students are entitled to financial advice, and health and safety procedures in their place of study.
? Equality and Diversity
Treating all learners fairly and with equal respect, this ensures that all leaners are given the same opportunities, it may mean that they may have different levels of attainment or may have extra session where needed but they are treated fairly in order to achieve the best possible outcome for the individual learner. Giving learners the opportunity to participate on equal terms and with an equal expectation of success.

? Inclusion
Engaging all learners, involving all learners in relevant activities, this would be identifying were learners may need extra support and providing that support too include them in each session. This could be as simple as providing hand-outs on a coloured paper for someone with dyslexia to be involved in each session. Or providing a Dictaphone for the individual to complete assignments whereby someone else will do the transcript for evidence, therefore not excluding. It could be recognising different cultural needs maybe food preparation or how desks are situated with reference to facing mecca etc.
? Differentiation
Acknowledging and celebrating the diversity in a group of learners, this is including and celebrating different cultures, race, sexuality, gender, age and religious beliefs. Treating each other with respect and understanding and including each and every person regardless. It is matching what is on offer with the needs of the student. Personalisation, planning to meet the needs and styles of individual learners, I have promoted different learning styles to meet the needs of students and will endeavour to continue to do so.
? Personal Professional development
Keeping up to date with subject developments is a must when working within the public teaching sector. I believe that it is essential to update my own skills and knowledge, through Research and training. Being well prepared Planning is an integral part of teaching, being unprepared allows for mistakes and no flexibility to deal with a crisis or sudden change.

Culture and Disease

Culture and Disease Paper
Stephanie Benitz
January 10, 2011
Kimberly Porter

Niemann-Pick Disease
Niemann-Pick disease is described as an inherited condition involving lipid metabolism, which is the breakdown, transport, and use of fats and cholesterol in the body. In people with this condition, abnormal lipid metabolism causes harmful amounts of lipids to accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and brain. The disorder has four main types based on the genetic cause and the signs and symptoms.

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Niemann-Pick disease type A appears during infancy and characterized by an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive), and progressive deterioration of the nervous system. Because of the involvement of the nervous system, Niemann-Pick disease type A is also known as the neurological type. Children affected by this condition generally do not survive past early childhood, and making it to the age of two and four. Children have known to even survive longer with possessing mental and retardation problems. Niemann-Pick disease type A occurs more frequently among individuals of Ashkenazi (a religious sect) Jewish descent than in the general population. The incidence within the Ashkenazi population is approximately one in 40,000. It was spread through generations of ancestors to time of age. As of the present time this known disease has affected millions of children to date, affected their brains and mental capacity to perform normal daily activities that many children across the world have been considered the norm.
Niemann-Pick disease type B has a range of features that may include hepatosplenomegaly, growth retardation, and problems with lung function including frequent lung infections. Other signs include blood abnormalities such as elevated levels of cholesterol and other lipids (fats), and decreased numbers of blood cells involved in clotting (platelets). Niemann-Pick disease type B is also known as the non-neurological type because the nervous system is not usually affected. People with Niemann-Pick disease type B usually survive into adulthood.
Niemann-Pick disease type C usually appears in childhood, although infant, and adult onsets are possible. Signs of Niemann-Pick disease type C include severe liver disease, breathing difficulties, developmental delay, seizures, poor muscle tone (dystonia), lack of coordination, problems with feeding, and an inability to move the eyes vertically. People with this disorder can survive into adulthood. Niemann-Pick disease type C is further subdivided into types C1 and C2, each caused by a different gene mutation.
By six months of age, affected babies experience feeding difficulty, recurrent vomiting and enlargement of the spleen and liver, which causes the abdomen to appear distended. Some children with the disease have a “cherry-red spot” in the retina of the eye. Death usually occurs between age two to four. One in 75 Ashkenazi Jews are carriers of Neimann-Pick Type A disease. Niemann-Pick disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. When both parents are carriers of the gene mutations, there is a 1 in 4 (25%) chance in each pregnancy to have an affected child. The specific biochemical defect in Type A Niemann-Pick disease is the deficiency of an enzyme, sphingomyelinase (ASM), which normally degrades a fatty substance known as sphingomyelin. The enzyme defect leads to the accumulation of sphingomyelin, primarily in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and brain. Currently no treatment or cure for Neimann-Pick Type A disease.
Approximately 1,200 Type A or Type B cases diagnosed worldwide. It has been estimated that approximately two-thirds of all infants with Niemann-Pick Type A disease are of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. In 1997, the gene responsible for Niemann-Pick disease was discovered. This discovery has helped focus research for treatments. Gene therapy has shown effectiveness in mice for Niemann-Pick Type A disease. Bone marrow transplantation has been performed on a few patients with Type B with encouraging results. Researchers continue to study possible treatments, including enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy. There is no specific treatment for Type C and D. A healthy, low-cholesterol diet is recommended, although research into low-cholesterol diets and cholesterol-lowering drugs does not show that these methods stop the disease from growing worse or change how cells break down cholesterol. However, medicines are available to control or relieve many symptoms, such as cataplexy, and seizures.
Well, three researchers at the University of Utah, anthropologist Henry Harpending, Gregory Cochran (a Ph.D. physicist turned genetic theorist), and Jason Hardy put forth a hypothesis that seeks to explain both mysteries simultaneously. Nicholas Wade of the New York Times has written one of the two news stories about it to date. The proposed hypothesis holds that Jews developed their genetic diseases as a side effect of strong selective pressures for higher intelligence during the Middle Ages as they were forced to work mainly in occupations that required greater cognitive ability.
Put these two together??”a correlation of intelligence and success, and a correlation of success and fecundity??”and there are circumstances that favor the spread of genes that enhance intelligence. They could be exactly the genes that cause the inherited diseases that afflict Ashkenazi society. This is just an ideal to be thrown in the mix and continued to be researched along with many other hypothesizes.
Even though this disease is severe and life-limiting, by knowing if both parents are carriers can prepare physicians to help them deal with pregnancy and what could happen by taking this chance. Their aren??™t known ways to prevent from extracting the life killing disease to their offspring, but by knowing the circumstance of the issues they may deal with can easily be over powering with the knowledge verse not knowing.
In conclusion, the disease is normally called the Niemann-Pick disease and it affects the abnormal lipid metabolism causes harmful amounts of lipids to accumulate in the spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and brain. The factors that affect the population is the Jews, Jews are prone to this disease and was found from generations before known to date. There aren??™t really known environmental causes to this disease, if I had to draw a conclusion, I myself would say that the environment had nothing to do with this disease. The modes for disease transmission are both parents need to be carries in order for their offspring to inherit the disease. The methods needed for the spread of this disease it through the carriers DNA. The disease can??™t be cured but can be prevented without having sex and having the carriers get checked with scans.

References (2011). Niemann-Pick Disease Type A. Retrieved from
Genetics Home Reference. (2011). Niemann-Pick Disease. Retrieved from
Medline Plus. (2010). Niemann-Pick Disease. Retrieved from
The Jewish Federation of North America. (2011). Jewish Genetic Diseases. Retrieved from

Identify and Discuss the Issues Relating to the Recognition of Brand Names, for Both Internally Developed and Purchased Brand Names.

Identify and discuss the issues relating to the recognition of brand names, for both internally developed and purchased brand names.

Just like a person??™s reputation is one of their most valuable assets, brand names have also become one the most valuable assets of a company. Brand valuation are fast gaining credibility and making it onto balance sheets, recognising brands as revenue-generating assets (Siu, May 2002). It has become a mainstream business tool which, in addition to balance sheet reporting, is used for the following purposes: Merger and acquisition planning; Tax planning; Securities borrowing; Licensing and franchising; Investor relations; Brand portfolio reviews; Marketing budget determination; Resource allocation; Strategic marketing planning and internal communications. The following four are the fundamental recognition criteria to be recognized as an element in financial statements:
??? It has a relevant attribute measurable with sufficient reliability.
??? The information about it is capable of making a difference in user decisions.
??? The information is representational faithful and verifiable.
??? The information must be neutral.

In the present economy, however, intangible assets such as intellectual capital frequently create value. The International Accounting Standard 38 (IAS38) became effective from July 1999 that required the capitalisation of purchased goodwill and acquired intangible assets such as licenses, franchises, publishing, patents and brands (Heberden, Aug 2000).

Capitalisation Cost
Historically, intangible assets have always been considered ???risky??? assets. Expenditures on intangibles, which result in new technologies and brand names, are difficult to quantify and value. Of particular importance is the measurement of the cost of the assets being capitalized (Research and Development, Patents, and Employee training), and the use of expected present value. It is more difficult to measure the future benefits of intangibles than the benefits accruing from other assets such as investment in property, plant, and equipment because an asset of an entity is a result of past transactions or events. Traditional accounting systems fail to capture much of what goes on in business because these transactions are no longer the basis for much of the value created and destroyed. It is not limited to an arm??™s length transaction between a willing buyer and a willing seller. It may be an internal event that occurs within the entity. Therefore, the level of expenditure is not proportional to the eventual worth of the outcome (Leo, 2007).

Uncertainty and Irrelevance
Research is a series of events that converge. It is almost impossible to distinguish the turning point in the series of events that lead to a commercially successful product (Gelb and Siegel, 2000). The expensing of research & development (R&D) and advertising are required based upon the risk and uncertainty related to their benefits. The distinction between R & D, advertising, training, etc. and other recognized assets is not based on the definition of assets but rather on the practical consideration of coping with the effects of uncertainty complicated by the fact that the benefits may be realized far in the future. There exists some uncertainty relative to future economic benefit of internally generated intangible assets. Therefore the controversy focuses on risk and measurability issues as well.

Cost information being relevant or reliable
Recognition of elements of financial reports is subjected to decisions about trade offs between relevance and reliability. The relationship between future economic benefit of assets and net cash inflows to an entity is often indirect for both business enterprises and not-for-profit organizations. Therefore, the argument that a direct relationship between cost of an asset and its specific future revenues even with the benefit of hindsight is not worth (AASB 138, paragraph 27). Lev and Sougiannis (1996) provide evidence that capitalization of R & D yields statistically reliable and economically relevant information.

Information Volatility
In accordance with AASB 3, if an intangible asset is acquired in a business combination, the cost of that intangible assets is its fair value at the acquisition date and should be recognised separately from goodwill if its fair value can be measured reliably, irrespective of whether the assets has been recognised before the business combination (AASB 138, paragraph 34). The object is to bring a greater deal of transparency to the acquisition process in requiring the companies to identify and value the assets they acquired. This may in itself lead to volatility in reported earnings. Hence, companies will be keen to ensure that intangible assets are fully identified and accounted for separately from goodwill as long as they won??™t under-perform.
D. Identify and discuss the issues relating to the measurement of brand names, for both internally developed and purchased brand names.

Following the identification of intangible assets, the next step is to determine the fair value of the intangible assets. The AASB provides guidance on determining fair value. A realisation that the full value of brand owning companies was neither explicitly shown in the accounts nor always reflected in stock market values led to a reappraisal of how intangible assets in general, and brands in particular, should be valued and disclosed (Heberden, Aug 2000).

In light of the fact that investors use financial statements to make future investment allocation decisions, capitalization of intangible assets is feasible whether purchased or internally generated. Below are the generalised views of concerning issues related to measurement of such assets.

Avoiding double counting of intangible assets value as two or more intangible assets may contribute to the same stream of earnings. For example, a well-known trademark and the underlying technology contributing as a separate but to the same increase in the profitability of an entity.

Retrospective capitalisation
The costs of creating internally generated brands are required to be treated as expenses when they are incurred (Heberden, Aug 2000). There are clearly problems in accounting for internally generated brands; however, having no disclosure of their value is far from ideal. Capitalisation of internally generated brands is still remains questionable.

Useful measurement from recognition of in-process assets
Some internally generated intangibles are capitalized. For instant, costs incurred in creating a computer software product that is to be sold, leased, or marketed, is charged to R & D expense when incurred until technological feasibility has been established for the product. Technological feasibility, however, is a criterion that is difficult to apply. There is no such thing as a real, specific baseline design. Erlop (1996) argues that a company can apply the technological feasibility threshold as early or late as they choose. Kirk (1985) says the criterion of technological feasibility is difficult to define. Therefore it can lead to abuse. Financial analysts have consistently argued against capitalization of computer software because the useful life is relatively short lived compared to other R & D projects. Technologically feasible software is recognized as an asset, whereas other intangibles that are both more relevant and reliable, that have greater consequences in terms of both dollar amounts and useful lives, continue to be ignored (Gelb and Siegel, 2000).

One of the important challenges of accounting for intangible assets is selecting the appropriate economic life for each item or category. Some assets such as strong brand names may have a relatively long or even indefinite life, others such as customer relationships, may be amortised over a shorter period (Quiligan, Jun 2006)

Cross fertilisation and multigenerational factors (Leo, 2008)
The expensing of R & D and advertising are required based upon the risk and uncertainty related to their benefits. For example, there should be sufficient documentation between R & D expenditures and the ratio of successful/non-successful discoveries. For each company the success/failure ratio over an extended period of time should be documented (Sannella, 1995). A historic pattern of results could be required for the entity; however, its specifics are not objective evidence. If the entity does not have operating histories for new products or services, statistics for other products or services may be used if it can be demonstrated that these are products/services that are likely to be highly correlated. The payroll and payroll related costs for the activities of employees who are directly associated with, or devote time to, the advertising is to be reported as assets (Gelb and Siegel, 2000).

Determining the true value of brand names
Well-known appraisal methodologies are in place these days to value brand names. The most commonly used concept of all is called the ???relief from royalty???. This is based on the assumption that if brand has to be licensed from third party brand owner, a royalty rate on turnover will be charged for the privilege of using the brand (Heberden, Aug 2000). It involves estimating likely future sales and the applying an appropriate royalty rate to arrive at the income attributable to brand royalties in future years. The process of selecting an appropriate royalty rate range needs to be rigorous, as the value implications of a small change in the royalty rate can be significant. In the article Heberden, Aug 2000;???Measuring intangible assets??™ its mentioned
??? At times, it is difficult for an appraiser to obtain specific comparable licensing agreements. In fact, many thousands of licensing agreements have been negotiated at arm??™s length. They usually call for a royalty to be paid based on sales levels. Royalty percentages typically range from 1% to 5% of sales, depending upon the negotiation strength of the parties and the perceived value of the intangible assets being transferred. Because the IRS has expressed concern about royalty arrangements between controlled parties, appraisers like to get comparable figures from true arm??™s-length transactions. These transactions exist, they can be analysed, and they have been used numerous times in the appraisal process.???

??? AASB 138 2007; Intangible Assets (Cwlth).
??? Erlop, Osman June 16, 1996; ???When Does Life Begin Forbes??™, pg. 72-74.
??? Gelb, D. and P. Siegel. 2000; ???Intangible assets and corporate signalling??™, Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting (15); pg. 307-323.
??? Heberden, Tim Aug 2000; Accountancy, South Africa; ???Measuring intangible assets??™, Accounting & Tax Periodicals, pg. 5.
??? John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, Milton, Queensland.
??? Kirk, D. J., June 12, 1985; Growing Temptation & Rising Expectation = Accelerating Regulation, FASB Viewpoints, pg 7.
??? Leo, K., Hoggett, J., Sweeting, J. and Radford, J. 2008 (LEO); Company Accounting, 7th edition.
??? Lev, B. and T. Sougiannis; 1996; ???The capitalization, amortization, and value-relevance of R & D??™, Journal of Accounting and Economics (21); pg. 107-137.
??? Quilligan, Laura Jun 2006; Accountancy, Ireland, Dublin; ???Intangible Assets identification and valuation under IFRS 3??™, Vol. 38, Iss. 3; pg. 10.
??? Siu, Michael May 2002; CA Charter, Sydney, Australia; ???Balancing brands??™, Accounting & Tax Periodicals, Vol. 73, Iss. 4; pg. 60.
??? Sannella, Alexander J., 1995; ???The Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business??™ (31), Analytical capitalization of research and development costs, pg. 75-102.


Culture and Arts

Culture and Art
Amber N. Hunter

Culture is consisting of learned ways of acting, feeling, and thinking. It is a powerful human tool that consists in everyone??™s life. The five major components of culture would be language, values, symbols, beliefs, and norms. Language would be the system of symbols that allows us all to communicate with each other. Values are a set of standards we use to access different things about each other and serve as guidelines to social living. Symbols are anything that serves as meaning to people of the same society. Beliefs consist of specific statements a society holds to be true. The norm would be rules or guidelines a society uses for its members.
Art is known as the process or product of purposely arranging certain elements in ways that affect one??™s sense or emotion. Visual art is defined as art work; it can be a painting, photograph, or sculpture. Visual art usually appeals to the visual sense and appears in a permanent form. Music is a verbal form of art with vocal tones structured in a continuous manner. Architecture is the art or designing and constructing buildings or structures. Literature is an art of written works that can be composed of a language, period, or a culture; usually of artistic value.
The role of an artist is to present their artwork in a form that is appealing to society. They bring forth their views of society or situations in their art. Their role is almost as if to entertain. Culture plays a large role in artists work. Their beliefs, values, language, etc. is transformed in their works of art.

Identify and Briefly Describe


2. Identify and briefly describe three types of sentences. 1. Fixed, Definite: 5 years, 10 years, 300 years 2. Indeterminate: 1-10, 5-10, 5-25 3. Indefinite: NO LIMIT
3. Identify and briefly describe seven sentencing options that are available to judges. Prison, Probation, Halfway House, Fine, Restitution, Community Service, Study Release.
4. Identify and briefly describe three sentencing models employed by different states. 1st: Legislative Models: Legislature controls sentences in penal code => Fixed Sentences 2nd: Judicial Model: Judge has power => Fixed Sentence with Discretion 3rd: Administrative Model: Parole Board makes release Decisions => Indeterminate Sentences
5. Identify and briefly describe five methods of execution that are currently used in the United States. Methods: Hanging, Electrocution, Firing Squad, Gas Chamber, Lethal Injection.
6. Identify and briefly describe six arguments in favor of the death penalty. 1. Lextalonis: An eye for an eye -> Defendant deserves it 2. Public is for it 3. Special deterrent: offender will not commit another crime. 4. General deterrent execution: => Prevent crime by public 5. Economics: Saves the state the cost of incarceration. 6. Humane: Better than life in prison
8. Identify and briefly describe four purposes of prisons. Purposes: Punish, Deter, Rehabilitate, Incapacitate.
9. Identify and briefly describe four prison security levels. Maximum, Medium, Minimum, Supermax.
10. Identify and briefly describe two purposes of classification. 1. Purpose: Treatment; Education, Drugs 2. Management: Separate sex predators, Child Molesters, High Escape Risks.
11. Identify and briefly describe three approaches or methods that states use in classifying inmates. 1. Reception Diagnostic Centers 2. Internal Classification Unit 3. No classification Unit
12. Identify and briefly describe five problems (i.e., ???landmines) that can undermine or negate the effectiveness of classification. 1st: Miss the diagnosis 2nd: Right diagnosis but recommend wrong treatment 3rd: Right diagnosis, right treatment.
13. Identify and briefly describe five causes of prison violence. 1. Homosexual conflicts 2. Economics 3. Gang Disputes 4. Racial conflicts 5. Protection Rackets 6. Personal disputes
14. Identify and briefly describe two prisonization theories. Deprivation theory: The subculture is a product of prison life
Importation Theory: The subculture is imported??¦A reflection of the world.
15. Identify and briefly describe six of Gresham Sykes??™s inmate roles. 1. Real Man: Do your own time, be tough, don??™t rat 2. Rat: Rats on others. 3. Gorilla: takes things by force 4. Merchant: Gets things, Drugs, Alc. 5. Center Man: Hangs out near the control center: friendly with guards.
16. Identify and briefly describe Gresham Syke??™s five pains of imprisonment. 1. Loss of Liberty 2. Loss of autonomy 3. Loss of material goods and services 4. Loss of heterosexual relations 5. Increased danger of victimization
17. Identify and briefly describe five characteristics of the guard subculture. 1. Emphasize security and control 2. Maintain social distance from the inmates 3. Be tough 4. Be smart 5. Be suspicious 6. Be loyal to other guards
18. Identify and briefly describe five types of treatment programs used in prisons. 1. Academic education 2. Vocational education 3. Psychological Services 4. Medical Services 5. Recreational Programs
20. Identify and briefly describe five types of community based corrections. 1. Probation 2. Parole 3. Work Release 4. Study Release 5. Halfway houses 7. Boot Camps
21. Identify and briefly describe seven goals or purposes of community based corrections. 1. Keep Offender out of prison 2. Provide rehabilitation services 3. Offender keeps job, supports family 4. Community protection 5. Reduces crowding in prison 6. Saves the state money 7. Reduces labeling avoids ??? convict??? label
22. Identify and briefly describe five factors that a judge may consider in deciding whether or not to place a convicted offender on probation. 1. Seriousness of crime 2. Prior record 3. Attitude of offender 4. Attitude of victim 5. Job and family 6. Prison crowding
23. Identify and briefly describe Daniel Glaser??™s four types of probation officers. 1. Punitive Officer; focuses on community protection 2. Welfare worker; focus on helping 3. Paternalistic; Combination of 1 @ 2 4. Passive Lazy=> NOT doing job
24. Identify and briefly describe five factors that a parole board may consider in deciding whether or not to release an offender. 1. Crime seriousness 2. Prior record 3. Job 4. Place to live 5. Attitude

Culture Acquisition in English Instruction and

Culture Acquisition in English Instruction and
Effective Intercultural Communication

1. The Purpose of the Study
Thus,in considering culture acquisition at school in this paper,the purpose will be to seek for the way of culture learning which leads to an effective intercultural
communication. In other words,the primary concerns sin this Paper are as follows: Firstly, what culture learning will be more likely to lead to the reduction of the impact of prejudice,bias?,and hostility between People based on cultural group memberships.
Secondly,what culture learning will make it possible for learners to prevent
miscommunication from occurring in intercultural encounters. Thirdly, what culture learning will equip the learners with knowledge,perspective and attitude to minimize the negative impacts on them and on others when misunderstanding or miscommunication does occur.. Finally,the author of the Paper Will make out a framework about what kind of culture learning is likely to lead to the effective
intercultural communication,and will Present several Principles on the basis of the framework. Then the Practices of the actual instructions will be examined on the basis of the Principles.

2.Communication and Culture
Gallois and Callna(1997) give us various perspectives how communication and
Culture interrelate with each other in real intercultural communication settings:
??¦to some extent,culture is communication,in that cultural knowledge,including values,Are communicated constantly(15).
??¦for many people the definition of culture is communication,as culture comprises the knowledge,beliefs,values,and Practices that are constantly transmitted in conversation,written communication,and non-verbal behavior(22).

3. The Effective Intercultural Communication
In terms of a number of strategies for intercultural Communication,Gallois and Callan(1999:153 ) summarize that all the Points have the goal of ???making the Communication less inter-group and more interpersonal???.In this way,the effective Intercultural communication can be defined as the state that the Personal identity is more salient. On the other hand,the ineffective intercultural communication will be defined as the state when the social identity is more salient.?·

4 .Culture Acquisition by Small Culture Approach
Holliday (1999)explains culture learning in terms of the
Large and small culture Approach as follows:
In the large culture approach culture learning tends to be???other,or???foreign??™directed. In contrast,in the small culture approach,culture learning will focus on searching for demarcating and observing the interaction between several cultures within a target scenario

5. Frameworks Aiming at Process Learning
This paper would like to make out an original frame of reference on the basis of several frameworks Which Hadley(1993)Presents in the book?·As a basic framework,the paper will adopt one of Lafayette(1988),Who maintains that culture is still the weakest component of our curricula,Partly because cultural material receives uneven treatment in textbooks and Partly because many teachers lack fist-hand knowledge of the culture and o/r appropriate techniques for teaching it.
Lafayette (1988)Provides a set of 13 goal statements that he groups into
Five categories. The goal statements are Presented in a somewhat modified form,incorporating the category r designations he describes as follows:
Group I: Knowledge of formal or???high culture : Students will be able to
1.major geographical monuments
2.majo historical events
4.major artistic accomplishments
Group ll: Knowledge of everyday ???Popular” culture: Students will be able to
5.???active,,cultural Patterns,consisting of functions or tasks related to everyday
living(such as eating,shopping,travels,obtaining lodging,etc.)
6.???Passive,,everyday cultural Patterns (consisting of underlying realities,such as Social stratification,work,marriage,etc.)
Students will be able to??¦
7.act appropriately in common everyday situations
8.use appropriate common gestures
Group III :Affective objectives: Students will be able to,
9,value different Peoples and societies
Group IV:Multicultural objectives: Students will be able to recognize/explain the culture of??¦ language-related ethnic groups in the United States
11.non-EuroPean Peoples speaking the target language(Canada,Africa,South
GroupV: Process objectives: Students will be able to??¦
12.evaluate the validity of statements about culture
13.develop skills needed to locate and organize information; about culture(Based
on Lafyette1988,P49?50;inHadley(1993))

6. Six Principles for Culture instruction
Principle l
Culture acquisition should not be restricted to the learning of formal or???high,,
culture,but it should mainly include the learning of everyday or???Popular,,culture,which is more to do with our social environments.

Principle 2
Culture acquisition should be highly concerned with the aspect of verbal and
Nonverbal communication such as common wards and phrases,gestures,and behaviors. It should incorporate???Process learning,,so that it will sensitize learners to the interaction of communication and culture.

Principle 3
Culture learning should Provide learners with chances of transfiguration of their
viewpoints about the interaction of communication and culture.

An Example of Communication Activity: the Use of the Perception Checking

Principle 4
Culture acquisition should not be limited to the treatment of national or ethnic level culture,so that learner will acquire perspective diversity toward others.

Principle 5
Culture learning should not be equated with the learning of the culture of English speaking countries and peoples,nor the adaptation of it. It should deal with varieties of countries and Peoples,so that learners will appreciate the value of cultural diversity

Principle 6
Culture acquisition should place high priority on the learning of the culture of
learners??™own country and people.

Culture is communication. Thus culture acquisition should Provide learners with
chances of transfiguration of their viewpoints about the interaction of communication and culture,so that they will successfully cope with a new situation. Only learners have achieved the diversity of Perspectives,not in the stereotypical or Prejudiced Perspectives,the intercultural communication can be more interpersonal.


Identify and Assess Learners Needs

Identify and Assess Learners??™ Needs

Assignment 109

Identify and Assess Learners??™ Needs

1.Describe a group, or a selection of individuals, their background, barriers to their learning and their learning needs and styles.
The NVQ Early Years Care & Education programme, level 2 and 3 is spread over 2 years, although candidates may be able to finish in less time depending on their personal commitments. The entry requirement for level 2 is that they are working (either employed or voluntary) in an Early Years setting. Level 3 candidates must prove that they have supervisory responsibilities in the workplace. They do not have to be the supervisor; they may be a room manager or a deputy. Childminders automatically undertake the level 3 because they have sole responsibility for the children in their care.
Both levels attend together on the first night for the Induction then split up to attend alternate weeks. This group are going to trial the VLE and some may use Quickstep as I am part of the NLN Project.
The classes are structured to teach the candidates how to present their evidence to build a portfolio to prove their competence. A lot of the time is spent translating the NVQ standards into a language they can understand. The challenge with childcare is that children are unpredictable; candidates can become frustrated when planning does not go according to plan.
In my Year 1 group of students, I have eighteen candidates with mixed ability. They have an age range of between 20 and 51years old. They are all female and working in either pre-school, nursery or are childminders. Eleven are level 2 and work under the guidance of a supervisor or manager, and seven are level 3 and are in a supervisory role.

A large percentage of learners are attending the course because it is a requirement of their employment. Although they are generally keen, some feel they have been out of the education system for too long and are nervous about returning, others don??™t feel they have the academic qualities needed to complete the course or the time to devote to it.
These were typical barriers to learning as reported in the Barriers to Learning NALS Research doc, p62 (Accessed 2004,Oct 6) that found (of new learners):
36% Preferred to spend time doing other things.
24% Lack time due to family.
28% Lack time due to work.
24% Nervous about going back to the classroom.
My level 2 group has eleven candidates, nine working in pre-schools, one childminder and two from Reception/Transition class in a private school.
My youngest candidate in this group is 19, my oldest is 45 years old.
In the level 2 group PM has severe dyslexia, and (JW) has an unidentifiable special need. The group worked flagged up her problem as she came to me at the end saying she felt thick and stupid because she couldn??™t put on paper what was in her head. She had sat next to the other candidate with dyslexia and felt reassured that someone else was struggling with this. I reassured her that I could do something about it if she wanted me to, and explained the initial assessment procedure to her. She was happy that I should contact Learning Support.
MM, although qualifies to undertake a level 3 qualification, opted to take level 2 as this suited her long term plans. JP and RP work at the same pre-school and are good support for one another. They are slightly older than the others in the group and are Activists.
The remainder of the group just have a lack of confidence and they feel they feel they do not have a lot of time to spare when juggling work and family life.

Of my level 3 candidates, I observed that SC was very tired. She had been at work in the college nursery since 8am and had come straight to the class at 7pm. She was fine while we did the work on the computer but visibly flagged during the written work.
KB (childminder) had arrived late and flustered, as she has to organise childcare cover before coming to college. SS was terrified of the computer. EG was a late enroller, I need to keep my eye on her, as she didn??™t seem too keen to take notes.

2. Outline the methods used to obtain the information.

Students make the initial approach to enrol, either by coming along to an Open Evening, phoning Customer Services or phoning me directly. They are sent an Application pack (see appendix A) consisting of an Enrolment Form, Application Form, Candidate Profile and Course Information Leaflet about the course. The Enrolment Form and the Candidate Profile Form (see appendix C.) both have a box with options to tick to identify any support they need. When completed, these are returned to me and I then make an appointment to interview each one of them. The purpose of this is to make sure they are on the appropriate course and level to match their job role and responsibilities. I am able to give them information on other courses available, not necessarily at Eastleigh College, that may suit their learning style better as a vocational course that is done in their own time is not always the best way to achieve. Issues around any special needs they may have are discussed.

For most of the candidates I will send a Reference Form (see appendix B.) to the employer to confirm their job role, and to ensure the employer is aware of what areas of work the candidate must be involved with in order to complete the qualification.
During the interview I explain what the qualification involves, give an insight to the quantity of written work they can expect and the amount of time they will need to commit to the course outside of the college.

Research also suggests that ???practical barriers such as lack of time due to work commitments may be more easily overcome than lack of motivation to learn??™. Barriers to Learning NALS Research doc, p10 (Accessed 2004,Oct 6)

As my candidates attend college less than the 210 guided learning hours needed to qualify for mandatory Initial Assessment; I have to rely on my Application Forms and interviews to identify their needs.

3. Analyse how the information gathered is used to develop the groups learning.

Level 2:
Having assessed my learners??™ needs, I followed this up for PM and JW, who both undertook the College Initial Assessment and Literacy Assessment in the Learning Resource Centre (LRC), liaising with Learning Support has done this. Once Learning Support had their results, they were offered one to one support outside the classroom on a weekly basis, neither was allocated a note taker but this could have been an option. JW has now decided she no longer needs this support, because she feels she is getting enough support and appropriate information from the lesson. I do back this up with regular 1:1 tutorials.
When doing brainstorming or large group feedback, I use blank OHT??™s on the OHP to write on, so that I can photocopy them and give them out as handouts. This means that JW and PM don??™t need to take notes, and because both these learners are visual learners, this method works. I have found that PM is very vocal in a positive way, and is confident and happy to discuss her experiences with the group so is a very useful resource during discussion times.

For RP and JP I provide small group activities where they have to actually produce something in the class. This gives them the opportunity to discuss the problems they are having with others in the group, and I am there to guide if necessary.

Level 3:
To make sure that SC got the same information as the rest of the class, I made sure to have regular handouts that she could read at a time when she was feeling less tired.
As KB is generally a bit late, I fit individual reviews at the start of the class so that she does not miss any information.
My students have all had to register with Quickstep, which is NVQ on-line although they don??™t now have to use it. Since then, and because I am part of the NLN project team, my groups are being introduced to the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). This could have been a problem with my students who do not want to use the computer, but I have been able to introduce small amounts of PC work into the lesson to ease them into it. They have all been able to see the benefits of using it despite the VLE not up and running when they??™ve needed it!

In the classroom, I have watched all the candidates to see how they take part in large group discussions, small group discussions, paired tasks and individual tutorials. From this I am able to plan and adjust my future sessions to meet the changing needs of all the candidates so that nobody feels excluded. Every candidate comes to the course with a variety of knowledge, skills and experiences. This is an important resource. It might mean that I need to prescribe where the candidates sit for different sessions, so that confident and non-confident sit together occasionally to share their experiences and gain confidence.

A. Application Pack
B. Reference Form
C. Candidate Profiles

1. Internet:
National Adult Learning Survey (NALS) 2001 – (Accessed 2004, Oct 6)

Barriers to Learning NALS Research doc, p10 (Accessed 2004,Oct 6)