Cuban Missile Crisis

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Cuban Missile Crisis
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American defeat or victory |
will writing service hull
Willard Cornelius
12/10/2010
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???Imagine, Mr. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions??? (Soviet Archives Exhibit). This opening line of a letter written from Khrushchev to John F. Kennedy shows the feelings of the Soviet Union at the time of October 24, 1962 towards America. Following the end of World War II, the Soviet Union was placed in the spotlight. The Cold War ensued between America and the Soviet Union. One of the major events of the Cold War was that which happened in 1962, on a small island just off of the coast of America.
The island of Cuba has been under the dictatorship of Fidel Castro since 1959. Fidel Castro is considered to be a Marxist, and that is why it is no surprise that Fidel found a friend in the leader of the Soviet Union. After obtaining Fidel Castros approval, the Soviet Union worked quickly and secretly to build missile installations in Cuba. On October 16, President John Kennedy was shown reconnaissance photographs of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba, President Kennedy, in a televised address on October 22, announced the discovery of the installations and proclaimed that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union and would be responded to accordingly (Soviet Archives Exhibit). He also imposed a naval quarantine on Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipments of offensive military weapons from arriving there.
President Kennedys first reaction to the information about the missiles in Cuba was to call a meeting to discuss what should be done. Robert S McNamara, Secretary of State for Defense, suggested the formation of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council. Fourteen men attended the meeting and included military leaders, experts on Latin America, representatives of the CIA, cabinet ministers and personal friends whose advice Kennedy valued. Over the next few days they were to meet several times. During their discussions they considered several different strategies for dealing with the crisis. They included the following:
(1) Do nothing. The United States should ignore the missiles in Cuba. The United States had military bases in 127 different countries including Cuba. The United States also had nuclear missiles in several countries close to the Soviet Union. It was therefore only right that the Soviet Union should be allowed to place missiles in Cuba.
(2) Negotiate. The United States should offer the Soviet Union a deal. In return for the Soviet Union dismantling her missiles in Cuba, the United States would withdraw her nuclear missiles from Turkey and Italy.
(3) Invasion. Send United States troops to Cuba to overthrow Castros government. The missiles could then be put out of action and the Soviet Union could no longer use Cuba as a military base.
(4) Blockade of Cuba. Use the United States Navy to stop military equipment reaching Cuba from the Soviet Union.
(5) Bomb Missile Bases. Carry out conventional air-strikes against missiles and other military targets in Cuba.
(6) Nuclear Weapons. Use nuclear weapons against Cuba and/or the Soviet Union.
For the United States, the crisis began on October 15, 1962 when reconnaissance photographs revealed Soviet missiles under construction in Cuba. Early the next day, President John Kennedy was informed of the missile installations. Kennedy immediately organized the EX-COMM, a group of his twelve most important advisors to handle the crisis. After seven days of guarded and intense debate within the upper echelons of government, Kennedy concluded to impose a naval quarantine around Cuba. He wished to prevent the arrival of more Soviet offensive weapons on the island. On October 22, Kennedy announced the discovery of the missile installations to the public and his decision to quarantine the island. He also proclaimed that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be regarded as an attack on the United States by the Soviet Union and demanded that the Soviets remove all of their offensive weapons from Cuba.
During the public phase of the Crisis, tensions began to build on both sides. Kennedy eventually ordered low-level reconnaissance missions once every two hours. On the 25th Kennedy pulled the quarantine line back and raised military readiness to DEFCON 2 (Cuban Missile Crisis, thinkquest.org). Then on the 26th EX-COMM heard from Khrushchev in an impassioned letter. He proposed removing Soviet missiles and personnel if the U.S. would guarantee not to invade Cuba. October 27 was the worst day of the crisis. A U-2 was shot down over Cuba and EX-COMM received a second letter from Khrushchev demanding the removal of U.S. missiles in Turkey in exchange for Soviet missiles in Cuba. Attorney General Robert Kennedy suggested ignoring the second letter and contacted Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin to tell him of the U.S. agreement with the first.
On the 23rd Kennedy ordered six Crusader jets to fly a low level reconnaissance mission. The mission, flown at 350 feet and at 350 knots, brought back stunning close-up pictures of the missile sites and also showed that the Soviets were testing the missiles for launch.
One of the pilots, William Ecker, commented that, ???When you can almost see the writing on the side of the missiles then you really know what you??™ve got.??? On the same day, the Organization of American States (OAS) unanimously approved of the quarantine against Cuba. These countries realized that they were also threatened by the missiles in Cuba. With the backing of the Western Hemisphere, Kennedy signed the actual Proclamation of Interdiction in the early evening. The quarantine was to take effect at 10:00 a.m. (EST) on October 24. By the end
of the day U.S. ships had taken up position along the quarantine line, 800 miles from Cuba. They were instructed to use force to halt any ship that failed to stop at that line.
Also on Wednesday, military alert was raised to DEFCON 2, the highest level ever in U.S. history. The notification, sent round the world from Strategic Air Command headquarters, was purposely left encoded to let the Soviets know just how serious the Americans were.
The military could, at a moment??™s notice, launch an attack on Cuba or the Soviet Union.
That evening, the White House received a second letter from Khrushchev:
???You, Mr. President, are not declaring a quarantine, but rather are advancing an ultimatum and threatening that if we do not give in to your demands you will use force…. No Mr. President, I cannot agree to this, and I think that in your own heart you recognize that I am correct. I am convinced that in my place you would act the
same way??? (Soviet Archives Exhibit).
Therefore the Soviet Government cannot instruct the captains of Soviet vessels bound for Cuba to observe the orders of the American naval forces blockading that Island…. Naturally we will not simply be bystanders with regard to piratical acts by American ships on the high seas. We will then be forced on our part to take the measures we consider necessary and adequate to protect our rights. We have everything necessary to do so.
The missile deployment signaled a serious crisis and that the U.S. national interest in that crisis required that, one way or another, the missiles had to go seems self-evident to most of us because, for U.S. policy makers and for the public they instructed alike, the missiles quickly became laden with a multiplicity of interconnected meanings. Central to these meanings was the assumption that the only purpose these ???large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of mass destruction??? (Weldes, 1999) could possibly serve was ???to provide [the Soviet Union with] a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere??? (Weldes, 1999). The missiles, that is, were understood to be offensive weapons targeted at the United States and its allies: They represented ???a major [Soviet] military investment in Cuba with advanced weapons systems with substantial offensive capability??? (Weldes, 1999). But the missiles signified more. They meant, for example, that, in direct contravention of the Monroe Doctrine, the U.S.S.R. was willing to act aggressively in the Western Hemisphere. They meant that Kremlin-inspired international communism was on the march in this prized U.S. sphere of influence. And they meant that the credibility of the U.S. claim to lead the defense of the free world was in jeopardy. Awash as they were in this particular sea of meanings, the missiles were understood to pose an intolerable danger to the United States.
How worried were most Americans, and how much thought did they give to civil defense Clearly, some entered a state of near-panic and desperately sought civil defense answers while others remained calm and unbothered, either because they did not expect war or because they thought any preparations would be futile. Surveys conducted in late 1961 and 1962, mostly before the missile crisis, showed that roughly a third of the population believed a general nuclear war was likely, and if that war began, 70 percent thought that bombs and missiles would rain down on their own communities (George, 2003). Faced with the prospect of surviving when friends and family members did not, 30 percent said they would prefer to die (George, 2003). Almost 60 percent believed that family shelter owners would have to fight to keep neighbors out if war began, and 64 percent said that living in a shelter for a long time would drive many people insane (George, 2003). Many, in fact, wondered whether the leisure-conscious, gadget-seeking Americans of the 1960s could accept the austerity of shelter life.
U.S. foreign policy was understood, within that imaginary, to be concerned primarily with ???the Soviet threat??? and with the containment of Soviet aggression and expansion. During the ExComm discussions themselves, little was said explicitly about Soviet aggression, although President Kennedy did blame Khrushchev for the crisis when he asked, ???He??™s initiated the danger, really, hasn??™t he He??™s the one that??™s playing [his card, or God], not us??? (Weldes, 1999). Nonetheless, Soviet aggressiveness formed the taken-for-granted background to these discussions. Axiomatic within the postwar U.S. security imaginary was a representation of the Soviet Union as both ???the inheritor of Russian imperialism??? and a ???world-wide revolutionary movement??? (Weldes, 1999). As a result, it was assumed within that security imaginary that ???since 1918 the imperialistic and aggressive policies of Russian communism have resulted in the creation of a vast empire which poses a dire threat to the security of the United States and of all the free peoples of the world??? (Weldes, 1999). The fundamental problem of the cold war was thus ???Soviet expansion and empire??? (Weldes, 1999).
Soviet aggressiveness was easily invoked in describing the missile deployment in Cuba. For example, on October 22, Douglas Dillon had characterized the Soviet missile deployment as an ???invasion of the hemisphere by a foreign power??? (Weldes, 1999). In his speech to the OAS, Dean Rusk called it ???intervention??? and then ???aggressive intervention??? into the Western Hemisphere (Weldes, 1999). Adlai Stevenson argued in the United Nations that ???the issue of Cuba??? was not one of revolution, socialism, or dictatorship. ???The foremost objection of the states of the Americas to the Castro regime is… not even because Dr. Castro perverted a noble revolution in the interests of a squalid totalitarianism.??? Rather, he continued, Cuba was an ???issue??? because Castro ???has aided and abetted an invasion of this hemisphere??? (Weldes, 1999). In the ExComm meeting of October 27 Rusk also reiterated that ???the Cuba thing is . . . an intrusion in the Western Hemisphere??? (Weldes, 1999). This Soviet ???invasion,??? ???intervention,??? or ???intrusion??? in short, this Soviet ???aggression??? was problematic for two reasons. First, the so-called Western Hemisphere had traditionally been the preserve of the United States: Since the enunciation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1832, foreign powers had been warned to keep out (Weldes, 1999). Second, this intrusion was thought to be but the first in a series of Soviet moves: Subsequent aggression would assuredly follow (Weldes, 1999). In the aftermath of the Cuban missile crisis, the quasi-causal argument justifying this assumption was embodied, among other places, in the metaphor of ???salami slicing.??? According to McGeorge Bundy, the Soviet Union had busily been implementing the ???technique called salami slicing,??? first in Berlin and then in Cuba (Lebow, 1995). That is, it had been pursuing a series of ???little encroachments not easily resisted by democratic governments because each one in itself seems trivial??? (Weldes, 1999). In 1987 McNamara also argued that the Soviet missile deployment had taken a slice off the salami: ???There was a slicing of the salami; slice by slice they were moving ahead, or trying to. That is why it was absolutely essential, Kennedy believed, and others believed, that we not convey to the Soviets the impression that we either were weak or would behave in a weak fashion. All these things added up to one unequivocal conclusion: We had to get the missiles out of Cuba??? (Weldes, 1999).
Kennedy encountered a good deal of dissenting opinion and he rejected it. Schlesinger, for example, wrote several memoranda to the President, arguing that time was actually not on Castros side and that the Cuban leader, at least for the moment, remained popular. The skeptics included Richard Goodwin, John Kenneth Galbraith, Charles E. Bohlen, Chester Bowles, and Adlai Stevenson. In making his decision, Kennedy also bypassed Congress, further ensuring that he received limited advice. Only Senator J. William Fulbright, Foreign Relations Committee chairman, was let into the inner circle, and, at that, only once. Picking up rumors of a forthcoming invasion of Cuba, Fulbright sent the President a memorandum that strongly disapproved invasion it was “of a piece with the hypocrisy and cynicism for which the United States is constantly denouncing the Soviet Union ??¦ ,” he wrote (Paterson, 1989). Kennedy invited the Arkansas senator to attend an April 4th meeting. Fulbright spoke forthrightly to the assembled top-level advisers, chiding them for exaggerating the Cuban threat. As he had told the President earlier, the Castro regime “is a thorn in the flesh; but it is not a dagger in the heart.” No one in the room agreed with Fulbright.
The Cuban-American confrontation was and is a question of the Cold War, domestic American politics, and personalities. But it has been primarily a question of faltering United States unity in the hemisphere. Kennedy struggled to preserve that unity. In the end, he failed he did not achieve his well-defined and ardently pursued goals for Cuba. His Administration bequeathed to successors an impressive fixation both resistant to diplomatic opportunity and attractive to political democracy (Fenzel). Tensions finally began to ease on October 28th when Khrushchev announced that he would dismantle the installations and return the missiles to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba. Further negotiations were held to implement the October 28th agreement, including a United States demand that Soviet light bombers be removed from Cuba, and specifying the exact form and conditions of United States assurances not to invade Cuba.

References
George, A. L. (2003). Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile Crisis. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.devry.edu/lib/devry/docDetail.actiondocID=10064781&p00=Cuban+Missile+Crisis doi: E841 — .G39 2003eb
Weldes, J. (1999). Constructing national interests: the united states and the Cuban missile crisis [Vol. 12]. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.devry.edu/lib/devry/docDetail.actiondocID=10151062&p00=Cuban+Missile+Crisis doi: E841 — .W45 1999eb
Soviet archives exhibit. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/soviet.exhibit/entrance.html#tour
Lebow, R. N. (1995). We all lost the cold war. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.devry.edu/lib/devry/docDetail.actiondocID=10031980&adv.x=1&p00=Cuban+Missile+Crisis&f00=all&p01=%22United+States%22+OR+Cuba+OR+History+OR+%2220th+Century%22+OR+%22Cold+War%22&f01=subject&p02=%22Cuban+Missile+Crisis%2C+1962%22&f02=subject doi: D849 — .L425 1994eb
Paterson, T. G. (1989). Kennedys quest for victory: American foreign policy. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.proxy.devry.edu/lib/devry/docDetail.actiondocID=10086767&p00=Cuban+Missile+Crisis doi: E841 — .K466 1989eb
Fenzel, J. (n.d.). Thirteen days in October: the Cuban missile crisis. Retrieved from http://www.squidoo.com/cubanmissilecrisis
Cuban missile crisis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/COLDcubanmissile.htm
The national security archive. George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia. Retrieved from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/
Cuban missile crisis. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Cuban missile crisis. Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School, New Haven, Connecticut. Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/msc_cubamenu.asp

I Need Help with Examples

NAME; ADINA TOMA
QUALIFICATION; HSC DIPLOMA LEVEL 5
Unit ; HSC 53
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1. Understand diversity, equality and inclusion in own area of Responsibility

1.1 Explain models of practice that underpin equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility

In my role as manager I am responsible for ensuring that all individuals, their families, friends, carers and members of staff and those that I work in partnership with, are treated equally. Everyone should be treated with dignity and respect. There are many Legislations, Codes of practice and also my workplace policies which regulate equality diversity and inclusion within my area of responsibility. In my managerial role, I have to promote equality and uphold individuals equality of opportunity, individual rights and choice, their privacy, individuality, independence, dignity, respect, promote empowerment, equality of care, confidentiality and their wishes and needs. I must show how I respect diversity and accept other individual??™s differences. Some of the ways I can show this are:

??? Complaint procedure ??“When a resident wants to make a complaint I have to explain him the procedure, support him in how to complete one, give feedback about the result and maintain confidentiality.
EXAMPLE: The resident is complaining that one of the carers is rude to him every time that she comes in the morning to give him a shower and she don??™t mind the language. As a manager I explain him that the residential home has a complaint procedure and I will explain and help him in complete one. I also told him that the complaint is remain strictly confidential till will be resolved and he will get a feedback as soon the situation is resolved.
??? Consultation/participation ??“ Residents should have the right and be encouraged to actively participate in consultations regarding changes to the homes policies and procedures. When changes occur I have to involve the resident actively and have his permission in any changes.
EXAMPLE: Recently were some changes in the policies and procedures in using the lift. Because it was too old it was replaced with a new one. I organize a meeting in which I inform all the residents that in the new lift it can be used just for 4 persons not like before by 8. All the residents were actively involved to participate in asking questions and to opine about it.
??? Individual??™s care plans are regularly reviewed and updated to take into account any changes to the individuals health, needs and wishes.
EXAMPLE: One of the carer identify that one of the residents health has change, that the falls that he suffered in the last month it was because is losing the balance. I inform the doctor for a review in his medication, to run some tests and to be seen by physiotherapist. When the results comes it show up that he has a urine infection and the medication was too strong for him. I informed him that the care plan it will change and in till the infection is cured he has to walk with a Zimmer frame. His wish was that when in the home is ok for him to use the frame but when he goes out with the family to use just a stick.
??? Maintaining confidentiality ??“ Storing care plans securely
EXAMPLE: When the results of the urine infection of the service user come, it was logged in the care plan, known just by the doctor, nurse and the carers who help him with the care plan and the intake of the medication and the file was stored in the place under a key where is accessible just by them.
??? Various planned activities ??“ Activities which are inclusive and individual??™s choice
EXAMPLE: In the care home we organize all types of activities like dancing classes, bingo day, crafting, painting and many more. I made a planer of the week in which, I put it on a board in the dining room and living area so could be seen by all the residents and also every morning at the breakfast one of the carers remained them about the activity that will take place in that day.
??? Offering choices ??“ choice of meals, what to wear.
EXAMPLE: All the residents have the right to choose what to wear in that day so the carers have been instructed and trained to offered choice and help the resident to choose the cloths.
??? Promoting independence ??“ encouraging active support and empowerment of individuals.
EXAMPLE: Not all the residents in my home need support with the personal care, or to dress. Some of them for example can??™t close the zipper or the buttons but they could dress. The carers give encouragement and support for the service user to do as much is possible for them like brush teeth??™s, brush hair, put the scarf or to eat without help just with supervision from the carer.

??? All residents are allowed to practice their religious beliefs in the manner they wish.
EXAMPLE: In my care home I have various service users from different cultures. I provide them places for praying and celebrate with them their culture with the others residents like Festival of Dwaly in Indian culture
??? Respecting individual??™s privacy ??“ knocking on doors before entering.
??? Equipment needs ??“ readily available and in working order.
EXAMPLE: At the night time all the equipments are cheeked that are in order, all the batteries are put in charged, verify the due term for the next check-up, that the sleeves are not broke so when are used for the next day to be ready for use. The policy of the care home and the mandatory training give it to all carers is to check all the equipment before to use it.

??? Workplace policies and procedures readily available to all
EXAMPLE: When new staff is employed, after the induction training, the organisation give them a full and detailed handbook with policies and procedures to be followed like Disciplinary Policy, Equal Opportunities Policy, Diversity, Data Protection etc.
??? Information ??“ readily available and in various formats appropriate to each individuals need. The organisation gives all the information about the service that provides in different forms like large print, Braille, different languages, email, leaflets and inclusive audio format.
??? EXAMPLE: One day I receive an email from a lady that she wants more information about the residential home. Because English is not her first language she asked if I could send one in French and in big format. I replay to her that the package It will received in 3 days at home in her native language and in the format that she wished.

1.2 Analyse the potential effects of barriers to equality and inclusion in own area of responsibility

Inclusion, equality of opportunity and anti-discrimination are central principles in social care. All activity needs to be planned on the basis that some people may need additional support to overcome the barriers they face.? Barriers are those things that prevent or make access to a service more difficult for certain groups and individuals. The barriers that I faced in my own workplace are various and these barriers could include:

??? age
??? gender or gender identity
??? disability ??“ physical or sensory impairment
??? faith, culture, beliefs
??? sexual orientation
??? no communication, literacy and language

Other barriers could include:

Structural,? where circumstances create or result in barriers – for example in access to a good education adequate housing, sufficient income to meet basic needs. Structural barriers are associated with poor life outcomes that can be observed in the significant disparities in health between areas of affluence and those associated with poverty.

Institutional,? where policies, processes, practices sustain an organisational or service culture that excludes certain people or groups; an obvious example being what has been called the glass ceiling, i.e. that while not visible, a ceiling exists beyond which women – find it very difficult to progress.

Cultural? barriers can prevent, for example, consideration of spiritual, relational?  or dietary needs that do not conform with traditional expectations. For example? “it took 3 days to organize Halal food”.

Personal? barriers, for example where healthcare staff hold individual prejudices that influence their practice. These actions may be conscious, but as we have discussed, they can often be unconscious or unwitting.?

Attitudinal barriers? are not as easy to identify as physical barriers, but they can feel every bit as real to those who are exposed to them.

Some vulnerable and disadvantaged individuals need more support to ensure their voice is heard and they are able to have power in the decision making process. Remember that everyone is an individual.?  People do not always like to be categorised as from a particular equalities group. And individuals within equalities groups will have vastly different experiences, views and opinions.

Below are some examples of how different barriers can affect individuals with mental illness:

The World Health Organisation (2002) describe? stigma? as: “??¦any process whereby certain individuals and groups are unjustly rendered shameful, excluded and discriminated against.” Historically, considerable stigma has been associated with mental illness.? “… a collection of negative attitudes, beliefs, thoughts and behaviours that influences the individual, or the general public to fear, reject, be prejudiced and discriminate against people with mental disorders.” The work of Howard Becker (1963) on stigma – explored through the experiences of people with mental health problems and working in the psychiatric system – has contributed much to our understanding of stigma and the social consequences of labelling. According to Becker, responses to perceived difference showed that when: Society labels the individual or group; they are then treated differently as a consequence of the label.

The cycle of oppression proposes a relationship between prevalent or prevailing attitudes and beliefs about mental illness and difficult and? uncomfortable feelings and thoughts. These feelings and thoughts then influence the ways we act and behave.

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If the messages we receive about people and mental health problems / mental illness is that they are weak, cant cope with pressure, that we would be unsuitable as a teacher??¦we may feel inadequate, responsible, guilt or ashamed. Or we might be angry at being so misrepresented??¦The feelings might confirm that we do not want others to know? so we decide not to tell our colleagues, friends, family. We might withdraw socially to protect ourselves from others. After all, if we dont see people there wont be any awkward questions??¦We might decide to act out . After all, if people are frightened of us, they will stay away from us and we will feel safer??¦It is important to recognise that sometimes people can get caught in a negative cycle that, unchallenged, can feed and reinforce itself. This process has been described as internalised oppression? (Mason, 1990).

1.3 Analyse the impact of legislation and policy initiatives on the promotion of equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility

The legislation relating to equality, diversity and inclusion, stems both from the UK government and the European Union. It offers protection from discrimination on grounds of age, disability, gender, race and ethnic origin, religious faith or belief and sexual orientation. The legislation has implications on all workplaces, in terms of employment practice and in terms of the services provided. Compliance with the legislation must be embedded in your Equality, Diversity and Inclusion policies. You will need to adopt a very broad-based approach to ensure that all relevant legislative requirements are addressed and take full responsibility for actions in your sphere of responsibility. As a manager you will be responsible for ensuring ongoing appropriate staff development and training to support all staff in promoting inclusiveness and meeting legislation requirements. In addition meet with staff to give appropriate updates on relevant events and legislation and to discuss appropriate issues. Health and social care providers are obliged to incorporate legislation relating to equality, diversity and discrimination into their policies and procedures. Workplace procedures dictate best practice regarding how work activities must be carried out, and they must be followed. Anything else would be a contravention of the law, and be breaching an individual??™s rights.

Some of the legislations which may impact on your area of responsibility could include:

??? The NHS and Community Care Act 1980. This protects the rights of older and disabled people to receive care at home and in the community in ways that take account of their choices.

??? The Residential Care and Nursing Homes Regulations 2002. This protects the rights of people living in care homes.

??? The Children Act 2004. This protects children??™s rights by requiring local authorities to be ?exible in meeting children??™s needs.

??? Health and Social Care Act 2008. This Act established the Care Quality Commission (CQC), whose remit is to protect and promote the right of people using health and social care services in England to quality care and to regulate its provision. CQC took over the roles of the Healthcare Commission, Commission for Social Care Inspection and and the Mental Health Act Commission in March 2009

These pieces of legislation have helped us move forward on equality, but in 2009, women were still earning, on average, 23% less per hour than men; less able but better-off children were overtaking more able, poorer children at school by the age of six; people with disabilities were still more than twice as likely to be out of work than able-bodied people; and one in ?ve older people was unsuccessful in getting quotations for motor insurance, travel insurance and car hire. This prompted the government to bring into force The Equality Act which brought different types of discrimination within one piece of legislation. It provides understandable, practical guidance for employers, service providers and public bodies to ensure that rights to fair treatment are promoted for everyone.

Equality Act 2010 is the law which bans unfair treatment and helps achieve equal opportunities in the workplace and in wider society. The act replaced previous anti-discrimination laws with a single act to make the law simpler and to remove inconsistencies. This makes the law easier for people to understand and comply with. The? act also strengthened protection in some situations. The? act covers nine protected characteristics, which cannot be used as a reason to treat people unfairly.? Every person has one or more of the protected characteristics, so the? act protects everyone against unfair treatment.? They protected characteristics? are:
??? Age

??? disability

??? gender reassignment

??? marriage and civil partnership

??? pregnancy and maternity

??? race

??? religion or belief

??? sex

??? sexual orientation

The Equality Act sets out the different ways in which it is unlawful to treat someone, such as direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, victimisation and failing to make a reasonable adjustment for a disabled person. The? act prohibits unfair treatment in the workplace, when providing goods, facilities and services, when exercising public functions, in the disposal and management of premises, in education and by associations (such as private clubs). The equality act will for instance impact on your role as manager with regards recruitment. You will need to ensure that your job specification does not discriminate against particular groups of applicants. When processing applications you should concentrate on an individual??™s abilities to do the job, not their disabilities. Make adaptations to accommodate individual??™s differences e.g. working hours, special equipment needs etc.

Codes of Practice

In England and Wales, the General Social Care Council (GSCC) is responsible for ensuring that standards within the social care sector are of the highest quality. It has developed Codes of Practice for all care workers that include information on how to protect and promote the rights of individuals using the service. The Codes of Practice provide a guide to best practice and set out the standards of conduct that workers are expected to meet. They are also recommended reading for examining your own practice and seeking out areas in which you can improve. As a social care worker, you must protect the rights and promote the interests of individuals and their carers. This includes ???Promoting equal opportunities for service users and carers??™ (1.5) and ???Respecting diversity and different cultures and values??™ (1.6). Health care workers also have an obligation to protect the rights and promote the interests of patients. For example, the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) code or Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives states that, ???You must not discriminate in any way against those in your care.

2 Be able to champion diversity, equality and inclusion

2.1 Promote equality, diversity and inclusion in policy and practice

It is your role and responsibility to ensure that all staff promote equality, diversity and inclusion, whether dealing with service users directly or indirectly. This can be done in the following ways:

Dignity and respect ??“ respect individual??™s need for privacy and dignity in the way that service is provided and the way that information is handled. Treat service users with tolerance and have a non-judgemental attitude

Information and Communication ??“ providing information in different formats for example large print, Braille, video, tape, total communication, other languages, providing an interpreter.

Value the contribution – that each individual can make. Create a productive
environment in which everybody feels valued, their talents are fully utilised and services meet the requirements of diverse service users.

Embrace difference as a way of attracting and retaining staff and improving customer satisfaction. Provide relevant and appropriate access for the participation, development and advancement of all individuals and groups.

Remove physical barriers – overcome physical features by removing them, altering them, avoiding them or providing access to work or service by an alternative method.

Stereotypes, assumptions and bias ??“ avoid using negative or offensive language and images which convey stereotypes. Avoid making assumptions about people??™s ability to do things or not do things, their attitudes and their persona; circumstances. Don??™t assume that you understand their needs and requirements. Don??™t allow bias to affect decisions you make about recruitment, training, policies or procedures.

Tailor services to needs – Provide auxiliary aids such as an induction loop, prayer room.

It is important that staff attend relevant training meetings and supervision so they are aware of their role and accountability with regards equality and diversity. Here they are able to learn the principles of good practice and keep up to date with new developments and changes to relevant legislations. During supervision you should ensure staff are fully aware of the complaints procedure and they should be encouraged to report any issues they feel need to be challenged regarding discrimination.

2.2 Challenge discrimination and exclusion in policy and practice

Adult social care is a complex world of diverse organisations, dispersed responsibilities and growing user empowerment. As a provider of care and support you will need to ensure that you understand the legal framework regarding equality, diversity, discrimination and rights and be able to relate this to your everyday role. Managers at all levels and in all settings, should be seeking to ensure equality and eliminate discrimination by:

??? engage people using services and their families in shaping future support,
??? present staff with a vision of a fair and equal service,
??? create cultures which support equality and challenge discrimination,
??? capture the commitment of the workforce and raise their awareness of the
importance of equality
??? equip them through training, standards and supervision to recognise and
tackle discrimination, and enhance equality.
??? work across boundaries with other agencies and services to raise the profile of equality and promote informed debate and commitment to change

It is also about challenging others if necessary and speaking up for the individuals you support when they cannot speak up for themselves. It can be di?cult to challenge discrimination, particularly if it is institutional or practised by a colleague, so it is important that you consider how to deal with di?erent and often di?cult situations. To be able to challenge discrimination you require knowledge of policy, procedures and practice. If you feel con?dent about what is good practice, you will be able to deal more e?ectively with incidents that arise. When discrimination happens it may be intentional, but it can also be because of ignorance and lack of understanding. It is not easy to change the views of others but you must challenge discriminatory comments and actions. It is important to learn assertiveness strategies that can help when you recognise discrimination. When challenging discrimination, you should:

1. explain what has happened or what has been said that is discriminatory
2. state the e?ect of this on the individual, group and others
3. suggest or model ways to ensure anti-discriminatory practice.

In your job role, you have a duty of care to challenge discrimination in a positive way and promote inclusion. When you are concerned about anti-discriminatory practice, whether by sta? or by service users, you should challenge it effectively so that future incidents of discrimination can be prevented. This will also empower individuals to understand their rights. When you are concerned about anti-discriminatory practice, whether by sta? or by service users, you should:

??? Always act fairly and try to see things from the other person??™s point of view.
??? Consider that there could be different pressures, needs and cultures.
??? Always use positive language and never use words or phrases that could be disrespectful towards another person.
??? Do not allow prejudices and stereotyping to influence you and do not accept any type of discriminatory behaviour.

2.3 Provide others with information about:
??? the effects of discrimination

As a manager the best way to provide staff with information about the effects of discrimination is to ensure they regularly attend the appropriate equality, diversity and inclusion training. You could also discuss this area during team meetings, supervision and appraisal. You should ensure all staff are aware of the procedures to follow if they suspect discrimination is taking place or they are themselves the subject of any form of discrimination. All staff and service users should be aware of their rights. An easily accessible complaints procedure should be in use which can be accessed if they feel their rights are not being observed.

Studies have found that discrimination, racism and harassment may have significant mental and physical health consequences such as frustration, stress, anxiety, depression, possible nervous breakdown, or high blood pressure that can cause heart attacks.

Negative effects of discrimination physically and emotionally:
??? Depression
??? Anger
??? Loss of self-esteem
??? Isolation
??? Feeling stressed or unable to cope

The long-term effects could include:
??? Loss of motivation
??? Reduced individual rights
??? Restricted opportunities
??? Limited access to services
??? Mental illness caused by stress

??? the impact of inclusion

Research has suggested that the feeling of inclusion is a critical factor in bridging individuals??™ differences in age, race and gender in the workplace. In terms of the workforce, inclusion may lead to the feeling of acceptance in an organization which links to satisfaction with the organization and commitment to it. This in turn leads to increased productivity and more effective team and partnership working. In respect of the service users, by considering their needs and then designing the services to meet those needs inclusion can be attained. By enabling people to access services and informing and supporting them, developing their self-help skills and developing meaningful services. This improves health and wellbeing, reduces discrimination and increases inclusion in mainstream services.

??? the value of diversity

Having a diverse group of workers and service users simply means recognizing that all the people are unique in their own way. Their differences could consist of their athletic ability, cultural background, personality, religious beliefs, and the list goes on. There has always been diversity in the workplace, but in today society it is important to value and embrace it and make positive use of it. When people value diversity, they recognize and respect the fact that people are different and that these differences is generally a good thing. For example, when attempting to solve a problem, it is better to assemble a diverse team with many skills and many different ways of approaching the problem than it is to assemble a team that has all their strength concentrated in one area. This in turn will not only benefit both your organisation and the team as a whole but also the service users who use your services.

2.4 Support others to challenge discrimination and exclusion

In your role as Manager one of your most important responsibility, with regards discriminations and exclusion is to ensure all staff have attended the respective training and are fully aware of the workplace policies and procedures in this area. By ensuring staff have this information, knowledge and skills they will then be more able to identify situations where discrimination is taking place and will be aware of the correct procedures to follow in the event. Supporting both staff and service users to challenge discrimination and make a complaint will also be part of your responsibility. Service users should also be supported and encouraged to complain if they feel discriminated against or excluded. By providing service users with details of where they can seek further support and advice regarding discrimination, will allow them to feel they have more choice and control over their lives. Every workplace should have the following in place to aid both service users and staff to complain;

??? Whistle blowing policy
??? Complaint procedure
??? Appeals procedure

Once a complaint has been made it is important to monitor and review the situation periodically to ensure no reoccurrence happens. Some complaints may result in a review of practice and a change to the workplace policies which you would need to oversee. This would ensure that there is a clear directive for future similar events, should they occur.

3 Understand how to develop systems and processes that promote diversity, equality and inclusion

3.1 Analyse how systems and processes can promote equality and inclusion or reinforce discrimination and exclusion

Many care/residential homes have a mission statement which sets out the commitment of the home toward diversity, inclusion and equality. There must also be written policies, designed to re?ect the rights and responsibilities of those living within the homes environment. Policies should also provide guidance for sta? and visitors to the home on ways to ensure inclusive? practice. Policies are developed in response to legislation, codes of practice and statutory frameworks. By having these systems and processes in place it ensures that any acts of discrimination are dealt with in the correct way and according to your workplace practices therby ensuring all individuals are treated in a fair and equal manner.

The di?erent ways in which homes promote the rights and equality of opportunity for individuals must be included in their policies. Policies which promote equality and inclusion give out a positive message and encourage an atmosphere of mutual respect. There also needs to be systems in place for effective monitoring, reviewing and reporting on progress in relation to equality of opportunity, diversity and inclusion. Methods of monitoring can include, providing service users and their families with questionnaire??™s to complete. Also by having a complaints procedure in place and ensuring everyone is aware of the procedure, individuals are able to voice their opinions and report any discrimination or inequalities they have experienced and access support. All complaints should be carefully monitored and acted upon. As a member of the team, you share responsibility with your staff, to ensure that anti-discriminatory practice is promoted and also recognise when discrimination is happening.

Organisations can sometimes discriminate unwittingly through policies and procedures that lead to disadvantage for certain groups. This is known as institutional discrimination and can occur when attitudes such as ???we??™ve always done it this way??? are commonplace. To eliminate institutional discrimination, all public authorities have a responsibility to look at all their services, policies and procedures regularly to identify and remove any potential discrimination. This process is known as Equality Impact Assessment and is a legal requirement. The result of doing an Equality Impact Assessment should be to identify where we can improve our services or employment practices to meet the needs of individuals or groups.

3.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of systems and processes in promoting equality, diversity and inclusion in own area of responsibility

It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of the systems and processes, as this enables you to reflect on your current practice, celebrate your strengths and achievements and also to ensure any gaps or shortfalls are addressed. This can be done by carrying out regular reviewing, monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of your systems and processes. It will also provide opportunities to gather the views of colleagues, service users and their families. Using self-evaluation in this way builds up the morale of the setting and reassures all involved that your setting is working to improve the quality and its effectiveness. Your evaluation should include:

??? How effective your current systems and processes are at addressing issues
??? Do your policies and procedures cover all current legislations
??? Is there an effective communication system in place for reporting/registering complaints
??? Are service users happy with the service you provide
??? Is staff morale good

3.3 Propose improvements to address gaps or shortfalls in systems and processes

After evaluating your workplace in terms of equality and inclusion, the next stage is to decide upon the action you will take to address gaps and shortfalls in systems and processes and produce a report. Set out the key changes you would like to make as a result of your evaluation. The report should contain detailed recommendations and proposed changes or policy reforms. It should also detail how improvements will be made and a timescale for any proposed changes to take place, should be agreed. All team members should be aware of their own role and responsibility regarding the implementation of the plan. Prioritise changes to help you decide where to start. Some measures you may wish to consider as part of your action plan are:

Actively involve all employees

??? Consultation and participation.
??? Encourage employees to take part in monitoring, and promote the reasons for doing so.
??? Extra measures and adjustments.

Build a culture of inclusion and respect

??? Ensure the organisation??™s core values include a commitment to equality, human rights and inclusive working.
??? Create, extend or improve policies on equality and human rights and make sure other policies are equality proofed.
??? Take immediate action to address and tackle discrimination, harassment and bullying.
??? Training for all staff on inclusive working, human rights and equality.
??? Make inclusion a key management approach.
??? Encourage and appoint equality and human rights champions.
??? Encourage employee networks and forums.
??? Promote culture-changing initiatives.

How can I create an inclusive workplace

There are five stages in this process:

??? Consider what you want to achieve and what the benefits will be.

??? Undertake an inclusion review of your workplace.

??? Decide where work is needed and create an action plan.

??? Communicate the plan with staff and put the plan into action.

??? Review, monitor and evaluate the plans impact and use what you find to plan future action.

4 Be able to manage the risks presented when balancing individual rights and professional duty of care

4.1 Describe ethical dilemmas that may arise in own area of responsibility when balancing individual rights and duty of care

When working in a health or social care environment, professional practitioners are quite often faced with
situations involving moral dilemmas. Therefore, it is very important that you have a clear understanding of morality and the meaning of moral decisions and how they are linked to health and social practice. You also need to have a good understanding of their legal position, and the morals and ethics that form the basis of their professional code of practice. This is very important when a person refuses medical treatment or decides to take a course of action that might not be in their best interests. In such situations legislation and professional codes of practice can provide valuable guidance. You also needs to consider the following ethical points when dealing with moral dilemmas:

Duty
When working with vulnerable individuals, all health and social care practitioners have a duty of care to
protect their rights. If a proposed course of action or a proposed treatment could be harmful to the individual,
practitioners have to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages. For example, cancer patients are quite
often advised to undergo a course of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Both treatments involve some harmful
side effects, but the benefits should outweigh the harm caused by the treatment.

Safeguarding individuals
Social care providers should ensure that environments safeguard vulnerable individuals. This involves recruiting new staff and providing resources to ensure that individuals??™ needs are met. However, there are times when the behaviour or actions of one individual could harm other people within the organisation. This could be an individual with mental health problems who might become violent towards other people. If this is the case then the social care professional must follow the organisation??™s policies and procedures and if the behaviour of an individual is likely to result in significant harm to themselves or other people then the individual has to be restrained. Section 5 of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 provides guidelines for the social care professional, relating to the degree of harm that is likely to be suffered by a person if he or she is not restrained.

Beneficence
Beneficence refers to actions that promote the wellbeing of others. In the medical context, this means taking actions that serve the best interests of patients. Social care professionals have a duty to act in an individual??™s best interest at all times. This can involve balancing the benefits of medical treatment against the risks and costs. Health care professionals quite often have to weigh up arguments over cost, the effectiveness of treatment and the benefit that patients gain from the proposed course of action. For example, the cancer drug Herceptin could cost ?30,000 for one person ??“ would this money be better spent on saving multiple heart attack victims

Empowerment and autonomy of the individual
Empowering an individual means ensuring that they know enough to make an informed choice about decisions that could affect the quality of their life. This helps individuals to have control over their own lives. Vulnerable people who receive health and social care services rely on professional carers to ensure their independence. It is important that care workers empower individuals and don??™t use benevolent oppression to make decisions for individuals in their care, especially when it might seem that risky behaviour is involved. While staff might appear to be acting in ???the best interest??™ of individuals, they could in fact be denying a person??™s right to act as an independent individual and control their own life. Examples of benevolent oppression include:

??? not allowing relationships to develop between consenting adults
??? limiting alcohol intake of individuals
??? leaving the bathroom door open; not ???allowing??™ an individual to take a bath/shower in private
??? preventing individuals with physical/learning disabilities from going out alone
??? choosing activities that are thought to be suitable, but are not the choice of the individual
??? not providing resources to encourage independence and autonomy.

Legislation, policies and codes of practice provide clear guidelines as to the rights and responsibilities of care workers and these should be adhered to at all times. The duties of the care worker are clearly laid out in such documents, as well as in their contract of employment. In most situations a care worker??™s duties are clear and there is no conflict of interest. However, at times there can be a conflict of rights and ethical principles to consider. For example, the rights of one person may clash with the rights of others. For instance, in a supported housing project there may be a resident who likes to play music late into the evening, while another resident likes to retire early and get up early. In other cases, one person may have two rights that conflict with each other. For example, in certain situations an individual??™s right to privacy and confidentiality may clash with the right to be protected from harm. Cultural or religious values may also conflict with the right to be protected from harm. For example, a Jehovah??™s Witness (who does not agree with blood transfusions) may find themselves in hospital with a medical condition where a blood transfusion offers the only means of saving their life. In these situations the rights and duties of the care workers may also conflict with those of the individual using the service, and a decision will have to be taken as to which is the best course of action.
4.2 Explain the principle of informed choice

Over the past two decades the concept of choice has become important to the health and social care professions, and to the government departments that make policies affecting these sectors. It is now widely accepted that service users should be able to make informed choices about the services they receive and the most suitable treatments for themselves. Health and social care professionals should treat service users in ways that enhance their capacity to choose, and should not undermine their capacity (e.g. by withholding necessary information or presenting alternative options in a negatively biased manner). Informed choice means that service users are empowered to consider a range of options, that they own decisions, and share responsibility for the outcomes. Your role is to give unbiased adequate and accurate advice and information regarding options available, which relates directly to the service user choosing and pursuing realistic objectives and enabling them to make an informed decision based on that information.

|Terms/Definition |?  |
|Informed choice |One that is informed, consistent with the decision makers values, and behaviourally |
| |implemented |
|Informed decision |One where a reasoned choice is made by a reasonable individual using relevant |
| |information about the advantages and disadvantages of all the possible courses of |
| |action, in accord with the individuals beliefs |
|Autonomous choice |One which occurs when people act (1) intentionally, (2) with understanding, and (3) |
| |without controlling influences that determine their actions |
|Evidence based |The use of evidence based information as a way of enhancing peoples choices when |
|patient choice |these people are patients |

You will need to ensure that the service users values and culture are taken into consideration, with the information you provide. An informed consent can be said to have been given based upon a clear appreciation and understanding of the facts, implications, and future consequences of an action.

4.3 Explain how issues of individual capacity may affect informed choice

For a service users consent to be valid, it must be voluntary and informed, and the person consenting must have the capacity to make the decision. These terms are explained below.
??? Voluntary:? the decision to consent or not consent to treatment must be made alone, and must not be due to pressure by medical staff, friends or family.
??? Informed:? the person must be given full information about what the treatment involves, including the benefits and risks, whether there are reasonable alternative treatments, and what will happen if treatment does not go ahead.
??? Capacity:? the person must be capable of giving consent, which means that they understand the information given to them, and they can use it to make an informed decision.

There may be several reasons why an individual is unable to make an informed choice and decisions can be made on behalf of the service user without consent, if decisions are made in the person??™s best interests This reasons could be because they have mental health or physical issues where they are unable to communicate their wishes and lack the ability to understand and use information. This would apply where an individual has some levels of learning disability or dementia or diminished cognitive ability, or when an individual is under the influence of drugs. In these situations, judging competence can be very difficult. Factors that professionals can bear in mind when making an assessment include the individual??™s abilities to:

??? communicate a preference
??? understand the purpose
??? understand any potential risks and/or benefits to themselves and others in the future
??? understand the rights to refuse consent or withdraw consent
??? understand confidentiality and its limits
??? retain these understandings throughout the course of participation
The Mental Capacity Act (MCA) has been in force since 2007 and applies to England and Wales. The primary purpose of the MCA is to promote and safeguard decision-making within a legal framework. It does this in two ways:
??? By empowering people to make decisions for themselves wherever possible and by protecting people who lack capacity by providing a flexible framework that places individuals at the heart of the decision making process
??? By allowing people to plan ahead for a time in the future when they might lack the capacity for any number of reasons

Every adult has the right to make his or her own decisions and it must be assumed they can unless it is proved otherwise. Also, a person must be given all reasonable help before anyone treats them as though they are unable to make their own decisions. Just because someone makes what might be seen as a poor decision, it should not be assumed that they are unable to make any decisions. Any decision made for a person who is unable to so for themselves must be done in their best interests. Any decisions made for someone else should not restrict their basic rights and freedoms.

4.4 Propose a strategy to manage risks when balancing individual rights and duty of care in own area of responsibility

You will need to show your assessor how you manage risks when balancing an individual??™s rights and duty of care. This may involve carrying out risk assessments which allow the individual to undertake positive risk taking, whilst protecting and safeguarding vulnerable adults. Positive risk taking is about weighing up the potential benefits and harms of exercising one choice of action over another. Identifying the potential risks involved, and developing plans and actions that reflect the positive potentials and stated priorities of the service user. It involves using available resources and support to achieve the desired outcomes, and to minimise the potential harmful outcomes. It is not negligent ignorance of the potential risk, it is a very carefully thought out strategy for managing a specific situation or set of circumstances. This is done by:

??? Balance risk of harm with the benefits of independence and choice
??? Enable people to make informed choices
??? Support people to manage risks
??? Mutual accountability in choices and decisions
??? Keep people informed ??“ before during and after assessment and
??? support planning
??? Be flexible and innovative in risk management
??? Regular monitoring and reviewing situation through team meetings and partnership working with service users family and friends

———————–
Consider what you want to achieve

Do an inclusion review

Create an action plan

Communicate the plan and put it into action

Review and monitor the plan??™s impact

Cuba

The 1959 Cuban Revolution, led by Fidel Castro, triggered enormous social, political and economic change for the Cuban people. Following Batista??™s oppressive regime, Castro transformed Cuban society by providing equal opportunities for everybody in social welfare, however, Castro??™s rule was considered ruthless, causing many Cubans to flee the country. This created conflict between Cuba and the United States, as the US assisted Cuban exiles in an attempt to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. The tension heightened when economic circumstances caused the US to instigate an embargo. Cuba then became reliant on support from the Soviet Union, a similarly socialist state, which impacted heavily on Cuban society.
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Castro??™s rule revolutionised the lifestyle of the Cuban people, granting equality in sectors including housing, education, employment and healthcare. Under Batista??™s dictatorship, Cuba suffered from poverty and corruption. Though the country profited from numerous US investments in construction, Batista ensured he received a large portion of the nation??™s wealth, resulting in extreme poverty throughout Cuba. The revolution transformed this inequality by implementing new laws such as the Agrarian Reform Law, where large holdings of land were divided and distributed amongst peasants. Additionally, this and the Urban Reform Law, provided housing for all, with reduced or no rent. Developments were also made to create balance in healthcare between rural and urban areas. Castro provided free medical care to all Cubans, and medical facilities were constructed in the countryside. Similarly, education was of high priority, thus Castro launched several campaigns and offered education to all at no cost. These campaigns were highly successful, with the percentage of children between the ages of 6 and 12 enrolled in schools increasing from 56% to 77% between 1953 and 1970. Improvements in education led to increases in employment and Castro ensured that all Cubans secured a job. According to Dunn, ???even the poorest Cuban has shelter, food, electric power, medical care, access to education and a job??™ (2005). Hence, Castro??™s push for equality had a significant social impact as the living standards of many Cubans were raised.

Despite Castro??™s endeavour to rid Cuba of social inequalities, his brutal leadership could not be overlooked. Once Castro came into power, he imprisoned supporters of Batista and those who opposed him, with between 75,000 to 150,000 political prisoners in Cuba in 1962. Perez argues that, ???virtually no suspected opponent of the government remained free in Cuba,??™ (1988) as Castro aimed to prevent counterrevolutionaries from potentially overthrowing the government. Furthermore, Castro took control of the media, including newspapers and broadcast companies, to maintain order and censor his people from foreign political ideals. Castro also took radical action to ensure his peoples??™ loyalty to him. In 1960, the government established the Committees for the Defence of the Revolution (CDRs) which recruited members to spy and keep files on every Cuban. Any suggestion that a person opposed Castro was reported to the government. In his speech on the CDR, Castro commanded to know, ???What does each do What relations does each have with tyrants To what is each dedicated In what activities are each involved??? (1960). His strictness resulted in masses leaving Cuba for other countries, particularly the United States. 200,000 Cubans left the island between 1966 and 1971, many of which were educated professionals from the upper and middle class, such as doctors, teachers and engineers, as Castro??™s reforms benefitted them the least. This made certain developments in social welfare difficult, as Cuba??™s most skilled technicians had departed, thus, Castro??™s regime also impacted harshly on Cuban society.

Cuban expatriates in the United States contributed to the political conflict between Cuba and the US, leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion in 1961. As Cuban exiles voiced their discontentment with Castro to the US government and the US became uneasy about Cuba??™s relationship with the socialist Soviet Union, the United States began to plan an invasion at the Bay of Pigs, hoping that Castro would be overthrown. Cuban exiles were trained by the US and the invasion was expected to encourage the Cuban population to join the invaders. However, as Chasteen notes, ???despite their hopes, the anti-Castro Cubans who landed at the Bay of Pigs in 1961 sparked no internal rebellion??™ (2001). The United States suffered a humiliatingly quick defeat, while Castro??™s image and support for the revolution were boosted. Tension between the US and Cuba heightened during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, which strained Cuba??™s relationship with both the US and the Soviet Union, as Castro was excluded from communications between the US and the Soviets. Furthermore, Cuba, which held the nuclear weapons, was under great pressure as the world was in fear that a nuclear Armageddon would occur. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union agreed to do remove the missiles and Cuba was safe from another US invasion. Both the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis demonstrate the hostility between the United States and Cuba, which had dire effects on Cuba??™s economy.

Cuba??™s conflict with the United States resulted in a trade embargo which had a critical impact on the Cuban economy. In response to Cuba??™s expropriation of US property in Cuba, the United States government declared a total trade embargo against Cuba in 1960. This caused great economic disruption in Cuba as the US provided more than 70% of total Cuban imports in prerevolutionary times, including supplies used in Cuban industry, agriculture, transportation, communications and utilities. The embargo also prevented Cuba from receiving medicine and pharmaceuticals which complicated medical care and slowed developments in medicine. Perhaps most importantly, the embargo hindered the import of food from the US, which was essential as Cuba did not produce the majority of its own food. The prevention of food and medicine being imported brought problems of health and nutrition to Cuba, resulting in the rationing of food and the redevelopment of agriculture. Furthermore, after Cuba was expelled from the OAS, the US encouraged other countries from the Organisation of American States (OAS) to discontinue trade with Cuba, and by 1964, virtually every member had done so. Thus, the US embargo disturbed the Cuban economy and affected the lives of all Cubans.

The impact of the US Embargo forced Cuba to become dependent on the economic and political support of the Soviet Union. Previously, the Soviet Union knew little of Castro??™s Revolution in Cuba, however, when the US lowered their quota of Cuban sugar, the Soviet Union agreed to import large amounts and sold crude oil to Cuba at low prices in return. This agreement provided Cuba with strong economic support and relations continued to improve as the Soviets also offered military assistance. Perez agrees that Cuba??™s diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union ???strengthened the government??™s position against internal opponents and foreign opposition??™ (1988). Following the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Castro allowed the Soviet Union to deploy nuclear weapons in Cuba, which would provide defence should the US attack again. This led to the Cuban Missile Crisis wherein the US agreed it would not invade Cuba. The dependence on the Soviet Union also contributed to Cuba??™s movement towards Communism. Carey states that ???before the revolution Castro had been a lukewarm Socialist??™ (2004) but in 1961, Castro announced himself as a Marxist-Leninist and in 1965 the Cuban Communist Party was founded. Hence, Cuba??™s relationship with the Soviet Union greatly influenced the economic and political situation in Cuba.

Therefore, the Cuban Revolution had a huge impact on Cuba, socially, economically and politically up to 1970. Castro??™s bid to equalise the social and economic state of the country lifted the standard of living for many Cubans, however his brutal leadership was one that many feared and caused thousands of Cubans to leave the country. These exiles contributed to the tension between Cuba and the United States, demonstrated by the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The endless conflict is further demonstrated by the enduring US embargo against Cuba which greatly impacted the Cuban economy and caused Cuba to rely on political and economic support from the Soviet Union.

I Love You

F.4 IGCSE English Language Paper 1 Mark Schemes
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Section A
Main Assessment Objective:
??? read with insight
Supporting Assessment Objectives:
??? develop and sustain interpretations of texts
??? select material appropriate to purpose
??? understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic and structural devices to
achieve their effects

1 no half marks, accept any of:
??? he tells us ???All my life I was crazy about cars???
??? he had a (a stack of) car magazines (both words needed)
??? he got his driving license within days of turning 16

2 Examiners should reward all valid responses to the passage up to two marks:
??? I could no longer see at night
??? I could no longer make out faces clearly from more than a few feet away
??? Traffic signals had started vanishing and reappearing
??? Street signs were unreadable
??? Cars loomed up at me out of nowhere
??? Pedestrians materialized in the middle of empty crossings.

3 This question asks candidates to explain rather than select simply select text for an answer. Examiners must reward all valid responses and may select from the following or others
??? He is passionate about driving and describes it in a variety of ways – ???the highway of dreams???
??? He cannot imagine life without driving – ???Driving wasnt everything, just life???
??? It provides with ???Liberty??? in the broadest sense of the word
??? It makes him happy – ???the pursuit of happiness???
??? Driving is linked with his self perception of his own youthfulness and vigour – ???the promise that I would never, ever grow old???, ???the promise that I would not fade away???
??? Practical need to drive to work

4 Examiners should refer to the following bullet points and then to the table to reach an overall judgement.
There are many features in the passage that are worthy of comment and it is likely that candidates will focus upon different aspects of it. Examiners must reward all valid points that show an engagement with the text and an appreciation of the writers technique rather than have a set agenda of items that they are looking for. Examiners must reward all valid points that address the question and show a clear grasp of the writers technique
Candidates may refer to some of the following points:
??? The passage begins in the past tense and ends in the present, suggesting the loss of his happy past and the dominance of his sad present
??? The deliberate contrast between his passionate reminiscences about car ownership and the absolute flatness of the aftermath of the accident
??? The second paragraph ending, ???A little long??? is used as a narrative hook to entice the reader to stay with the passage and to hint at tragic things to come
??? To emphasise how unusual and bizarre his circumstances are he compares them to a number of comfortable and commonplace events
??? The manner in which the pace slows to achieve a slow motion effect to emphasise the actions of the accident
??? Use of repetition as the crash is repeated at the end of the passage as a nightmarish flashback, that presumable recurs
??? The presentation of the writer as an everyman figure, a boy who dreams of owning an impressive, fast car
??? The irony that the accident is caused, not by a powerful muscle car, but by a 10 year old car doing no more than 10 mph
??? The indifference of the police officer, arriving an hour later, is at odds with the enormity of the impact upon the writer
??? The self-recrimination of the final sentence ??“ ???Some of us only learn things the hard way.???
Language features
??? The use of short sentences for dramatic effect, ???I was terrified???
??? The use of single sentence statements that are emphatic and unambiguous ??“ ???Pride??? ???Suddenly???
??? Use of rhetorical questions to suggest reasonableness of his position
??? The manner in which the language echoes the dreamlike state of the nightmare as the writer fails to even write in sentences.
??? The tripartite sentence that describes how he feels immediately after the accident is powerful, ???I felt so shaken, so ashamed ??¦???
Total for Section A: 20 Marks

Section B, part 1
Main Assessment Objective:
??? read with insight
Supporting Assessment Objectives:
??? develop and sustain interpretations of texts
??? select material appropriate to purpose
??? understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic and structural devices to
achieve their effects

5 Examiners should refer to the following bullet points and then to the table to come to an overall judgement. Examiners must reward all valid points that show an engagement with the text and an insight into the writer??™s technique. More developed responses will deal more or less equally with both aspects of the question; less developed responses may deal wholly or
largely with only one part.
Candidates may refer to some of the following points:
Her fears
??? Her fears begin with the disorientation of being summoned, from a mundane activity. She is full of foreboding
??? Use of emotive language ??“ on the drive home her heart is full of dread. She wonders what she has done wrong.
??? Her disorientation is increased by her unfamiliarity with her new home
??? Her first reaction to hearing her father wants to see her is to be ???overwhelmed???. This is closely followed by a series of rhetorical questions used to depict her
fears and uncertainty
??? Slips into the present tense to emphasise the immediacy and strength of her fears and worry and her timidity
??? She knocks ???timidly???
??? She refers to her father??™s rooms as ???The holy of holies??? suggesting somewhere at once uniquely special, a place to be revered, an inner sanctum to which few if any are admitted
??? Line 51 ??“ triple rhetorical question; all written in the present tense, all emphasising the writer??™s confusion and disbelief
??? Her suspicion at her father??™s kindness is indicative of a lack of warmth and trust between them
??? Incongruously the father is in bathrobe and slippers, suggesting perhaps that her perceptions and the reality are not one and the same
??? The use of two strong simple statements in line 82 in response to her father??™s, probably rhetorical question
??? He is commanding ??“ as indicated by the repetition and use of exclamation in ???Sit down!???
Her joy
??? He is reassuring ??“ ???Don??™t look so scared.???
??? The family, and her father, are proud of her
??? Clearly she is desperate to please her father and her reaction to his pleasure is overwhelming ??“ ???My whole being vibrated with all the joy in the world???
??? Use of cliche indicates, perhaps unwittingly, the youthful inexperience of the writer, ???reach for the stars???, ???now or never???
??? Her timidity is emphasised by the fact that to ask him at all is considered bold
??? She quotes Wordsworth to indicate the strength of her joy – Bliss was it in that dawn to be alive
??? Despite being refused the opportunity and being told what her future career will be she is very grateful, further emphasising her distant relationship with her father in which she is desperate to please but also scared and wary of him.
??? She says coming to England is like entering heaven and asks ???Does it really matter what you do after you go to heaven???

Section B, part 2

Range of writing: explore, imagine, entertain; argue, persuade, advise; inform,
explain, describe
Main Assessment Objective:
??? communicate clearly for a particular purpose
Supporting Assessment Objectives:
??? organise ideas into sentences and paragraphs
??? use a range of sentence structures effectively, with accurate punctuation and
spelling.

Section C Writing
Writing to inform, explain, describe
Open answer. Students are assessed on content, accuracy and organization

Paper 2
Section 1 – Reading
Main Assessment Objective:
??? read with insight
Supporting Assessment Objectives:
??? develop and sustain interpretations of texts
??? select material appropriate to purpose
??? understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic and structural devices to
achieve their effects

1. A relevant answer will focus on:
??? evaluating how the writer makes the character of Madame Loisel interesting for the reader
??? using textual evidence to substantiate the points made
??? the writer??™s presentation and use of techniques, including use of language.

the way she is presented up to the loss of the necklace (lines 1 to 151)
very attractive??¦ pretty, charming young??¦.beauty,
sweetness and charm??¦quick wits, instinctive elegance
??¦ but socially disadvantaged She??¦ had the ill fortune to be born into a wage-earning family
has married below her pretensions she let herself drift into marriage with a junior clerk
is very unhappy She was in a perpetual state of dissatisfaction??¦ For days on end she
would cry and cry, shedding tears of misery, regret, despair, and anguish..
unable to accept her lot These things, which another woman with a background similar to her own might not have even noticed, she found unendurable and degrading
lives in what she considers to be poverty squalid wallpapers, its shabby chairs, its
hideous curtains and upholstery, were a constant source of torment to her??¦
no evening dresses, no jewels, nothing.
has dreams and aspirations above her status
She dwelt in imagination on vast salons adorned with antique silks
vain ??¦looked at her reflection in a kind of ecstasy.
pleasure seeking; self centred Pleasure had gone to her head like wine.
She had no thought for anything but the triumph of her beauty, the splendour of
her success

her relationship with her husband up to this time
did not marry for love she let herself drift into marriage
ill matched; neither is happy An angry look came into her eyes as she impatiently replied??¦He was miserable
she has little respect for him her cheeseparing clerk of a husband.
she is manipulative She thought for a while, totting up figures in her head, and wondering how much she could ask for without meeting with an immediate refusal
He is accommodating and defers to her in everything
His face went slightly pale, for he had been keeping in reserve precisely that sum with the object of buying a gun??¦
Nevertheless, he said: ???Right, you shall have your four hundred francs.??™
her husband is totally ignored at the ball Ever since midnight her husband had been fast asleep in a small, deserted salon

the changes after the loss of the necklace
defers to her husband She wrote to his dictation
she loses her looks Madame Loisel now looked like an old woman
pride; she doesn??™t want to lose face What would she have thought if she had noticed the substitution Might she not have taken her for a thief
determined to settle her debts The terrible debt had go to be settled, and settle it she would.
resigns herself poverty and drudgery She undertook all the heavy work of the household
loses all interest in her appearance Dressed like a woman of the people, still has her dreams But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she would sit down at the window and dream of the long-distant evening when she had been the Belle of the Ball.

the use of language
heightened language to indicate her social aspirations
antique silks, on elegant tables littered with priceless knick-knacks, on perfumed boudoirs
direct straightforward language use to convey her life after the change to emphasise the contrast strong, hard, and coarse. Her hair was all anyhow, her skirt awry, her hands
red. She spoke in a loud voice, and splashed water all over the place when she scrubbed the floors.
dialogue to intensify drama ???Do you mean that you brought a diamond necklace to replace mine??™ ???Yes. You didn??™t notice any difference, did you They were exactly alike.??™
???Oh you poor, poor thing! Mine was imitation and worth, at most, five hundred francs!??¦??™
superlatives use to convey the excitement of the ball Madame Loisel was a tremendous
success. She was the prettiest woman there??¦ the triumph of her beauty, the splendour of her success…
use of exclamation and rhetorical questions at key moments
How strange life is, how changeable! What small things make the difference between safety and disaster!
cynical edge to words; irony She moved in a happy mist made up of homage, admiration, and that sense of undisputed victory which is so dear to the female heart.

2.Writing
Writing to explore, imagine, entertain or argue, persuade, advise
Open answer and students will be assessed on content, accuracy and organization.

Cuba Trade

CUBAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

A Brief History About Cuba??™s Trading Partners
Before 1959, the United States was Cubas most important trading partner, a natural development due to its geographic proximity. That relationship ended in 1960 with the U.S. trade embargo. Cuba then courted the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies to become its primary trading partners. Due to the strict economic organization of the Communist system, only 50 Cuban companies were allowed to participate in foreign trade until 1987. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1989, Cuba was soon trading with a number of countries, including Spain, France, Italy, Mexico, Canada, Russia, the Netherlands, and Venezuela. About 40 percent of Cubas trade is within the Americas and 50 percent is with Europe. Main imports include fuel, food, semi-finished goods, wheat, vegetables, machinery, feed, and corn. Main exports are sugar, fish, nickel, medicinal products, and fruit. Cuba has consistently faced an unfavorable? balance of trade; in 1999 imports were valued at US$3.2 billion and exports at US$1.4 billion. This situation places Cuba in a dependent position, unable to earn hard currency and reliant on other countries for vital goods.

Traditionally, trade is divided into two large categories: Merchandise Trade and Service Trading. Merchandise trade deals with the trade of tangible products such as goods and service trade refers to finances, insurance and any other services that are originated from the ???services??™ sector of the economy. Firstly, we??™re going to take a look at Merchandise Trade.

Cuba??™s Merchandise Trade Statistics.

Year | Exports | Imports | Trade Balance |
2001 | 1621.9 | 4793.2 | -3171.3 |
2002 | 1421.7 | 4140.8 | -2719.1 |
2003 | 1671.6 | 4612.6 | -2941.0 |
2004 | 2188. | 5562.0 | -3374.0 |
2005 | 1994.6 | 7533.3 | -5538.7 |
2006 | 2759.4 | 9420.2 | -6660.8 |
2007 | 3701.4 | 10082.6 | -6381.2 |

– Information from the above table was taken from Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas, Anuario Estadistico de Cuba 2006 (La Habana, 2007).

So, as seen from the above table we can determine one major thing. That for every year between the period of 2001 ??“ 2007, Cuba??™s merchandise trade was in deficit. A deficit refers to a sort of shortage. In other words, the Cuban government was spending more money than that of which was coming in, and this was clearly demonstrated in the table above. If you take a look, the exports [money, goods and services which are going out] exceeded the imports [money, goods and services which are coming in], thus the Trade Balance always resulted to be negative. In 2006, we see that Cuba??™s trade deficit peaked at nearly 6.7 billion pesos, a new record. Basically, within that chosen timeframe, Vuba was spending way more money than they had or owned, with reference to t0 Merchandise Trade. They spent money, that in reality, did not exist yet.

Now, we??™re going to take a look at a few of Cuba??™s Merchandise Trading Partners, within the time period of 2001- 2006.

Top-Five Cuban Merchandise Export and Import Trading Partners in 2006 (million pesos)

Exports | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006 |
NetherlandsCanadaVenezuela
China
Spain
Total Top Five
Total Top Five as a Percentage | 334228227314380049 | 297203197514573952 | 41926717677179111867 | 64748722580174161374 | 599438240105161153477 | 774546296246149201173 |

Imports
Venezuela
China
Spain
Germany
USA

Total Top Five

Total Top Five as a Percentage | 2001951549694994229748 | 200272551759578174208950 | 2003683502581115327220848 | 20041143583633130444293353 | 20051860885654310476418556 | 200622091569846616484572461 |

Source: Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas, Anuario Estadistico de Cuba 2006 (La Habana, 2007).

Okay, so we are now about to analyze the preceding table and come up with a few patterns or trends that we??™ve noticed taking place. In 2006, Cuba??™s top five merchandise export markets took nearly three quarter of Cuba??™s exports. Cuba??™s two top merchandise export markets [Netherlands and Canada] held these positions at the top, partly because they are the primary outlets for Cuban mineral exports, predominantly nickel.
It is also noteworthy that Venezuela and China have emerged as significant markets for Cuban merchandise exports, consistent with the strengthening of political relations between Cuba and these nations.

Analyzing the second half of the table we see that the top five sources of Cuban merchandise imports in 2006 accounted for over 60% of such imports. Venezuela is Cuba??™s top supplier of merchandise imports because of oil shipments. Cuba??™s rapidly growing merchandise imports from China, have been financed by a series of credits extended to Cuba to purchase Chinese goods. Among the principal Cuban imports from China supported by such credits are electro domestic products, transportation equipment and electronic products.

Lastly, we see the USA has been one of the top five merchandise importers in 2006. In 2001, Cuban authorities agreed to purchase these US agricultural commodities and since then, the USA has remained one of the main merchandise importers throughout the selected time period.

Now that we??™ve had a look at the merchandise trading aspect, we would now analyze the Services Trade in Cuba.

Services Trade
Trade in services refers to the sale and delivery of an intangible product, called a service, between a producer and a consumer.
With reference to Cuba, the country ran a surplus in its balance of international trade sevices every year within the time period of 2001 ??“ 2006. Cuba??™s internationally traded services is divided into three categories: transportation services, travel and other commercial services.
Transport

In the early 1970??™s and 80??™s Cuba made attempts at expanding their national shipping fleet by working with intra-COMECON trade. However, in the midst of the 1990??™s an economic crisis arose, causing a downfall in the volume of cargos transported in Cuban bottom. However, up to 2006, it is said that the transport services sector is not sufficient or even large enough to account for the growth within the Cuban Services Export Sector.

Tourism

The tourism industry has had a positive outlook since the 1990??™s. By the second half of the 1990??™s tourism was the main generator for foreign exchange. Gross revenue from tourism amounted to 1.5 to 2.0 billion pesos per annum in 2001??“2003 and reached 2.4 billion pesos in 2006. It seems that tourism was mainly responsible for the bulk of Cuba??™s exports of services, until the recent take off of professional services.

Professional Services Exports
Cuba??™s heavy investments in public health and education over the last five decades created an environment within which Cuba could benefit from the export of professional services in health, education, sports, and science. The large increase in the value of the Cuban services export from 2571 million pesos in 2001, to 6701 million pesos to 2006, corresponds to the time period when Cuban experts have been providing health services to Venezuela. Cuba also began to value its medical and social services in a manner that is not consistent with international national income accounting methodology, thus resulting in faster growth rates than the usual.

Conclusion
So, Cuba now continues to run a constant deficit in its merchandise trade balance, and as seen in the tables above, it is continuing to grow each year. However, within the services sector, Cuba has run a bit of substantial trade surpluses, which expanded within 2005- 2006 mainly because of booming exports to Venezuela and a few other nations.

I Live by the Sea

I live by the sea. My average summer day consists of smelling the salty air and hearing the boats come in and out. The offloading and restocking are my everyday elevator music. Technically, the sea is a large blanket of salt water that covers much of the earth. To me, it is a lifestyle. I catch lobsters.
It is three in the morning and my alarm is going off. The first thing that comes to mind is “it is finally summer”. The shrilling alarm marks the start of days where I am elbow deep in lifeless fish, packing them into small mesh bags and tying them to the center of a lobster trap. I put thick rubber bands around snapping lobster claws, seeing money in their eyes. My summer is spent listening to the hum of a diesel engine and the splashing of waves. To anyone else this might sound like torture, but it is part of the life that I love.
In the winter it is a different story. I am not listening to a diesel engine anymore. Instead, I hear my teachers??™ voices. My days are no longer spent on the sea. They are spent in stuffy classrooms for the majority of my time. Winter is one of the best times to fish. There is only one problem, Mother Nature. In the summer, a fisherman can go out every day. The weather during winter is very unpredictable, making it difficult to fish daily. I am actually glad that I do not fish in the freezing cold weather during the winter. I love the ocean, but not the cold and lifeless winter ocean.
Over the years, the market for lobster has fluctuated. This makes lobster fishing a very risky business. Many of the major lobster fishing towns have dried up. Once fishing deteriorates, a small town could be in trouble. Last spring I took a trip with my father to Montauk, New York. We went to look at a fishing boat. Every fishing town has lobster boats for sale; it is part of the occupation.
While driving down the road, I saw rows and rows of boats with for sale signs. This clued me in on how something that was abundant and sustaining can just dry up with the snap of a finger. Montauk was like Deer Isle, where I live. It was a major fishing port. Now there is not a good enough market to sustain the industry. Montauk has now turned into a tourist town. It is more famous for its little Inns and gifts shops. Down on the docks there used to be local fishermen offloading their catch from their dirty, old fishing boats. Now it is foreigners offloading their trophy fish from their fancy, pristine white fishing boats.
I do not want Deer Isle, my home, to turn into Montauk. I do not want to have to work at a ???Joe??™s Crab Shack???. When I think of twenty years down the road, I am afraid that is what I will be doing. Someone needs to do something and I want to be that someone. I want the next generation to have the same childhood as I did, but that is not going to happen unless something changes. I admit that usually all I see are the lobsters, crabs, and cute seals, but I want to see what makes everything tick. Everything I see is part of the bigger picture. I never see what is beneath the surface. Anyone can see the ocean, but there are very few people around here that know what goes on under the swell of the waves. I want to be one of those few people. I want to be a Marine Biologist.
My father is a fisherman. It is not only what he does for a living, but it is who he is. He has been fishing since he was 17 years old, being the captain of his own boat since 18. He has made a living from; scalloping, gill-netting, long lining, sea urchins, slime eels and lobstering. You name a fishery and he has done it. Why The industry has changed so much that he will do whatever it takes to support his family. So I am told, the first time I was on a boat I was strapped into an infant car-seat. Being on a boat is second nature to me.
I have watched my father struggle with rules and restrictions, set in place by people who have never set foot on a working lobster boat. As the daughter of a lobster fisherman and having fished most summers of my life, I feel like I could make a difference not only for my Community, but for other Communities in the same situation.

Cuba and Estonia

One contribution to the steady increase in the GDP of both Cuba and Estonia, seen in the years after 1994 in Figure 1.1, which seemingly remained unaffected by the decline of Soviet influence and control, can be found within the somewhat stable population of students enrolled in the particular educational systems of each nation. While Figures 2.2 and 2.3 display the number of students enrolled within the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of Cubas and Estonias schools, Figure 2.1 is a total of each years population of students (primary, secondary, and tertiary levels being added together to find that total) being divided by that years total population to create a percentage illustrating the student-total population ratio.
Another point of comparison between these two nations that possibly contributes to their rising GDPs is their steady expenditures on health. While the data is limited to the years of 2000 and 2005, Tables 3.1 and 3.2 clearly show the steady amounts of expenditure upon health. When the amounts actually do decrease it is never more then 0.3 percent. Despite my inability to draw a decisive correlation between the statistics of educational enrollment plus expenditures on health and the rising GDP of Cuba and Estonia, I must draw ones attention to Figure 4.1. This illustration of the rising GDP per capita of both countries depicts a rising level of overall welfare, that is, should its increase not be outweighed by the skewing of results as caused by any income inequalities.

{draw:rect}

I Like Flawed Characters Because Somewhere in Them I See More of the Truth.

`Nicolas Cage said, ???I like flawed characters because somewhere in them I see more of the truth.??? Everyone has their flaws. It is just the way of human nature. This quotation means that weakness and imperfection in characters help us to better understand those characters and go deep in them. This quotation is valid, because we learn from our faults and in the same way we understand a character precisely that has flaws. John Steinbeck and William Shakespeare are two writers whose work of fiction and plays undeniably support this critical lens.
A great weakness which everyone shares is the greed for money. ???Greed can destroy innocence; it is a root of all evil,??? is an ongoing theme that can relate to the world around us. Everyone dreams of a life of wealth and no worries about what will be their next meal and when it will be served. As well as supporting their family??™s education, health and necessities throughout their lives and their future??™s so that they can live a better life than their parents. The pearl gave Kino hope of promise, delight, guarantee of the future, comfort, security, ???poultice against illness,??? ???wall against insult,??? and ???closed the door on hunger.???
Kinos investment of spiritual value in a pearl, an object of material wealth, may be misguided from the start. The pearl is a simple and beautiful object of nature. Once it becomes entangled with notions of material value, however, it becomes destructive and dangerous.
Juana and Juan Tomas both suspect that Kino is wrong to try to get more for the pearl than the dealers offer, and Juana tries several times to discard the pearl, believing it to be the source of her familys troubles. However, Kino remains narrow minded and thinks of the pearl as an opportunity for his son to get an education and, ???…break out of the pot that holds us in.??? Before Kino had found the ???Pearl of the World??? the doctor refuses to treat Coyotitos stung on his shoulder. He claims himself as a doctor, not a veterinarian. The rejection of the doctor enraged Kino deeply. Yet, when the hypocrite doctor realizes that Kino is going to be wealthy, he offers his services to cure Coyotito. Kinos heart is filled with anger but his love for his beloved son overcomes hatred. Instead of curing him, he drugs him and causes Coyotito to suffer from an acute illness. Kino and Juana do not know what had happened and they are very worried. Few hours later, the doctor returned. He gives Coyotito the antidote, and finally he is fine. However, after that the doctor tries to poison Coyotito to make him appeal sick so that he could claim that he had won the battle in curing Coyotito. Is he not noble Or was it all an act to gain a proportion of the wealth the pearl promised Greediness can lead people into doing all kinds of satanic work in order to achieve their goal.
It is known that in Shakespeare??™s tragedies main characters die in the end, and in his comedies people marry. ???Romeo and Juliet??? is a play by William Shakespeare. In the play, Romeo has a flaw because he seems to be too emotional. He acts quickly and impulsively, so that his actions are not thought out thoroughly. Romeo could have had a fairly happy ending if he did not commit suicide right after Juliet??™s ???death???. Juliet commits suicide when she sees Romeo dead. In this play, Romeo is always miserable and downcast. Also Romeo is always in love, and when he falls in love, he does not think about anything else. In Act I, Romeo was in love with Rosaline and could not stop thinking about her. He wandered around looking and acting depressed because Rosaline was not interested in him. To cheer him up Romeo??™s friends talk him into going to the Capulet??™s Masquerade party. Before he goes he promises that he isn??™t going to dance or have fun. So he goes to the party preparing to just watch the other people dance. While he is watching he sees this beautiful girl, at the instant he completely took Rosaline away from his mind. This is what Romeo ways when he first sees Juliet. ???Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear. So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows as yonder lady oer her fellows shows.??? Romeo falls in love too quickly and easily. Romeo??™s heart was in the right place throughout the play, he thought what he was doing was just right. His mind is so clouded with emotions of all sorts that he is unable to make, and think over those that he had already made, intelligent decisions. That is what happens to those who believe in fate and love at first sight. Believing in fate is no more than making excuses for problems and things going wrong, while love at first sight is nothing more than pure lust. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is centered on these concepts and is, hence, a story of infatuation, lust, and ultimately death.
No human being is perfect. We all have our faults, we are in fact most of the time defined by our faults. So when you have a perfect character in any stories, with no faults, it is very hard to identify yourself with them. This identification process makes stories have the power that they have.

Cu1531

CU1531 Engage in personal development in health, social care or children??™s and young people??™s setting
1.1My duties and responsibilities are to support service users with all aspects of personal care e.g. hygiene, dietary needs whilst preserving their privacy and dignity, promote mental and physical activities e.g. carrying on doing their hobbies, taking them out for walks or shopping, encouraging service users to be independent and maintain their freedom of choice in their everyday lives. Also providing and supporting service users with medication.
1.2The expectations in my work role are to follow my job description, policies and procedures and conduct and to follow the care quality commission standards, provide each service users with the care that is needed as stated in their individual care plans, to safeguard each service user to maintain their rights and wellbeing.
2.1It is important to use reflective practice as it help to develop your knowledge base of your job role and of your skills, understanding of service users??™ needs. During supervisions you reflect on how you??™re working, where you may need to improve and this is important so you can give the best possible care and the code of practice are being followed.
2.2During my duty I noticed that a service user at certain times of the day she would become more agitated and would start to busy herself with clearing plates away from other service users that have not finished eating, during handover my manager and I reflected on this situation and found that the pain relief the service user was on was not taking her pain away like it used to, so we got her stronger pain relief and the service user agitation subsided.
2.3 Everyone has different morals, values, preference??™s and beliefs which affect the way you relate to other individuals, e.g. as what they see as important might not be as important to you and vice versa and you??™re more likely to react to someone more positively if you have the same values and preferences. But when you??™re working in health and social care setting you need to keep your own values and beliefs separate and not allow them to inert fear with working like and treat everyone as an individual and give everyone the same quality of care.
3.1Through developing a care in health and social care, my knowledge and performance follows the relevant standards, manual handling standards have to be met by using the right equipment hoist, slings and slide sheets on the right service user, and training updated yearly and all the equipment is working correctly. Infection control needs to be adhered to throughout your daily duty, washing your hands properly when required wearing an apron, gloves to help stop cross contamination.
3.1I can do this by reflecting on and evaluating honestly my own performance, and get regular and useful feedback on your performance and this requires me to work with others (manager, work colleague??™s) to identify my strengths and weaknesses to identify and skill gaps, and any improvements that need to be made. Find out what information and support is available to help me develop a plan covering my personal and professional aspirations, and then put those plans into action. Make sure that my practice meets the following requirements. Keep up to date with any training that will help me maintain a level of knowledge and understanding that helps me to carry out my duty effectively, and Change the way that I work to coincide with any new approaches or recommendations.
4.1 The? Sources of support would be my manager through supervisions, appraisal and other seniors carers that might of done some courses that I haven??™t done yet and have more knowledge than I have, they could help me plan & review my professional development plan, also going on the internet to research as there is lots of good sites like the open university etc. Television documentaries and friends that work in similar roles can all help to put together an action plan.
4.2 I would compare myself to my work collages and study what kind of skills they have that I lack I would also asks them to show me so i can work on what i need to learn and practice next, and put this to my agreed personal development plan with my manager.

Cttls – Planning and Enabling Learning

Negotiating with learners can begin with an effective induction into a program of learning on entry to a classroom through an effective icebreaker and group involvement in setting ground rules to ensure that individuals begin to get to know their companions and feel at ease. Also it can be through an initial assessment process to ensure that the learner is entering a program at the right level for them, with the skills they need. As a trainer I want to know what their aspirations are with regard to the course or program so that ongoing assessment enables them to meet their targets. These targets can be for the overall program or specific indicating what they need or want to achieve in the short term and translated into immediate and manageable tasks and actions. An example of this was in the tutoring course where the early part of the course concentrated on induction, expectations and continual professional development as a tutor.

Inclusive learning is about bringing equality and diversity into the main stream of my learning activities. By bringing the diverse experiences of the learners into the sessions I can enrich their experience. At the onset of planning and designing learning I consider the learning cycle to identify the needs of the organisation and the individuals and this is then translated into a scheme of work and subsequent session plans. When planning the pilot tutoring course I knew adaptations would be needed so as part of the process learners were encouraged to be active participants in its final formation before roll-out by the incorporation of feedback sheets and sessions. In designing the methods used in this program I considered VARK and the need to treat the learners as adults, i.e. activities involving movement, flip chart work, buzz groups, also independent learning where groups researched and presented their own opinions on methods of assessing learning styles.

As a trainer I need to be competent and confident in my own functional skills to be able to develop my learners, for example, I need to be able to support written work with grammatical and punctuation correction, and support ICT and maths use. Some ways that I??™ve incorporated these skills within learning programs have been;
??? On the tutoring course planning activities to include researching materials and communicating with other group members through discussions and written/verbal peer feedback. Flip chart work, board blasts and quizzes requiring scoring were also used.
??? An Initial Sgts course, e-learning and work based objectives requiring ICT skills as well as language skills through group discussions. Maths was incorporated through the resource planning of critical incidents and managing operations where learners needed to be able to calculate timing and resource usage.
In order to communicate effectively I first have to understand how I communicate and the effect that this may have on the learners. I try to ensure that I come across as confident, show empathy and sympathy (appropriately) and I also have a responsibility to reflect on my communication style by having regular feedback for example, through observation of my sessions so that I can become self aware of any behaviours I have that may present barriers to learning. Verbal communication can be the pace of my delivery and the tone of voice used as well as the words but higher percentage of inference has been proven through research to be taken from non-verbal communication;
??? 7% of meaning in the words that are spoken.
??? 38% of meaning is paralinguistic (the way that the words are said).
??? 55% of meaning is in facial expression.
(Professor Albert Mehrabians communications model – http://www.kaaj.com/psych/ )

Therefore when I??™m with learners I also need to be aware of my body-language, posture and dress in order to establish and maintain an effective rapport with individuals and groups.

Transactional Analysis

(Diagram developed from the theory of Dr. Eric Berne (1950) for businessballs.com)
When working in groups it??™s important to facilitate discussion and accept that this is a collection of individuals with diverse needs. Being aware of Bern??™s (1973) Transactional Analysis theory as a method of understanding and analysing communication can assist with maintaining an effective ego state, the most effective state being adult to adult, if transactions are crossed barriers will be created to learning.