I Want to Be Miss America

Summary to ???I Want to Be Miss America??? by Julia Alvarez
In her essay ???I Want to Be Miss America???, Julia Alvarez discusses her life as an outsider after moving to the United States of America from the Dominican Republic at the age of ten. She watched Miss America pageant with her three sisters and parents trying to remember how to look more ???American???. She writes ???in our nightgowns, we watched fifty young women who had the American look we longed for??? (Alvarez 56). For Julia and her sisters moving was a hard enough change to deal with. She uses such landmarks as ???South of Florida??? (Alvarez 57) to explain her classmates where the Dominican Republic is, because none of them knew where it was on the map. Alvarez ???could just as well had said west of Puerto Rico or east of Cuba or right next to Haiti??? (57), but she didn??™t want it to be associated with a Third World country; she wanted it ???to sound as a vacation spot??? (57). She and her sisters tried to look more native, not like complete foreigners. The four sisters wanted ???to translate their looks into English??? (Alvarez 57), which was rather difficult to implement. They had olive skin and curly black hair that completely differed from ???blond, blue-eyed looks??? (Alvarez 60) and ???peaches and cream??? (Alvarez 60) skin of the contestants of Miss America, who were the main examples for the girls. In the late sixties a fashion for ethic looks and shades of skin with colorful outfits that the sisters had worn came to the States. Americans wanted to look exotic; they wanted to look the way Alvarez girls did. Even after three decades of living in America Julia still felt like a stranger. She knew that she was never going to be that pure model of an actual American woman from Miss America pageant.
I certainly can understand Julia Alvarez about what it is like to be a foreigner in another country. I agree that it is rather a challenge than a pleasure to be an outsider. Such a person wants to become a part of a society, wants to become more like others and look the way they do. For Julia models of true American women were those young ladies from Miss America contest. For me, my classmates, girls that I meet everyday in college or outside serve as such examples. Especially for teenagers, it is important to be a part of some group or sociality; to look, to dress, to behave as if they belong here. By fitting in they usually can achieve respect and sympathy from others. For Alvarez girls this group was comprised of people around them, who were born Americans. Desperate desire to become one of them was so strong that the sisters did all they could do to reach this goal. Still, it appeared impossible for Julia to get rid of the feeling of being a stranger even after a long time of living in what she now considers ???her own country??? (Alvarez 60).

Alvarez, Julia. ???I Want to Be Miss America.??? Mirror on America. Ed. Joan T. Mims and Elizabeth M. Nollen. Mirror on America. Boston: Bedford-St. Martens, 2010. Print. 56-60

I Tune Into the Conversation Around Me

???I tune into the conversation around me??™
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John walked down the Not knowing the plan of action at that moment made John feel uneasy. It felt like Mount Everest was erupting in his stomach. He began to breath heavy but tried hard to remain calm in front of his fellow prison mates. His mind drifted back to his wife and children. He remembered their faces full of despair as he was taken away from them and brought to the City Council Jail. He could picture his house in his imagination like it was only yesterday. Everything would be the same, His comfy chair would be directly in front of the old black box his wife called a television, His table setting would be made at the top of the dinner table as always and his bedside locker would have his reading light in the exact same position from five years ago. He pictured his strong oak tree that he had planted on the day of his first born child. It was now twelve years old and it stood graciously beside the garden shed. It provided him with a feeling of protection. In his mind it played the role of a metal barrier blocking any threat or sense of danger from his perfect world, his private oasis that was his family. The thought of being reunited with them made John determined to be successful in their escape.
A painful kick in the shin dissolved Johns dream cloud into thin air. He tuned into the conversation around him so that he was familiar with the plan and became mindful of his role in their deviating operation to break out of the prison. The leader of the group, Mike, was a muscular giant with guerrilla hands attached to a male??™s body. Rumour around the prison was he was brought in due to strangling his brother. He was extremely intimidating and no one dared look him in the eye. Oddly, he was fond of John, he took him under his wing and saw him as a younger brother. As Mike went through the plan John looked at all the brave men who were risking their freedom of life for good if they were caught.

Culminating Exhebition

My project states that I want to learn what it takes to become a paralegal. I said that it involves being a good assistant, being organized, knowing the different types of laws, and have good writing skills.
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For my first goal I mainly did research online. In one interview I had with a paralegal, they told me that you have to take initiative and be familiar with the law that your attorney works for. To be a good assistant, you have to be organized, have experience, and good writing skills. Paralegals assist attorneys in preparing legal documents, draft pleadings, and motions. Paralegals do a lot of work and they cannot procrastinate.

For my second goal I researched a lot of information about paralegals. This goal was easy to accomplish for me because I found a really good website online. Paralegals play a very important role in the criminal justice system. They assist attorneys and judges with court cases. To be a paralegal, you must have good understanding of legal terminology and be aware of the basic new laws including both state and federal laws. The most important thing is that you have to communicate effectively if you want to be a paralegal.

For my third goal I had to learn about the different laws that paralegals need to know. Depending on where you work, you do not need to learn all the laws. Most paralegals work in one field. There is criminal, family, business, and more. I learned mostly about those three. In criminal law, the attorneys and paralegals represent the people that are being accused. I learned that not all people are guilty. In family law, it is mostly about divorces or concerning children. In business I mostly learned that the attorneys and paralegals work with the businesses that ask for help when they do not get paid.

Cubism in Cummings and Stevens

The Cubist Poetic Movement
The idea of cubism can not only be found in paintings, but in poetry as well. Cubism is best known from artists Braque and Picasso. In their art, they created something new and different from what previous artists had done. They wanted to portray several different views of the same subject in the same moment; they wanted people to see more than one meaning or view in their paintings. This idea inspired many poets who wanted to translate what cubist artists had done in drawings to words. Cubism easily translated into the world of poetry. E.E. Cummings and Wallace Stevens are two poets who exemplified the use of cubism in their poems by creating visual and psychological experiences to offer different viewpoints in their poems. will writing service halifax
Cummings mainly created both a visual and psychological experience in ???l(a???. Cummings??™ poem ???l(a??? is simple, beautiful, and profound. It is written vertically and, when written horizontally, looks like this: ???l (a leaf falls)oneliness??? (L(a – A Poem by E.e. Cummings – American Poems). The poem depicts both the physicality of a leaf falling and the abstract feelings of loneliness. Those two things together give meaning to the poem: a single leaf falling is a symbol of loneliness. The shape of the poem is eye catching and gives the reader a visual experience. Because the poem is written vertically, it forces the reader to read it like they are watching a falling leaf; the reader??™s eyes glide down the page. The elongated shape of the poem provides an aesthetically pleasing view of the leaf. The spacing of the words on the page also aid in providing meaning to the poem. The separation of the word ???loneliness??? gives even more meaning to the word as it shows that separation is the cause of loneliness. The separation of the word also highlights the fact that it includes the word ???one???, furthering the feeling of loneliness the poem creates. The leaf falling and loneliness can also be seen as loneliness is like a falling leaf; the leaf is experiencing its fall alone. Cummings creates many different views in this poem. He creates a visual viewpoint of the leaf, as well as different views of the meaning. The poem can be taken literally, a single leaf falling, or symbolically, the falling if the leaf symbolizing loneliness.
Cummings??™ poem ???r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r???, grasshopper, also provides a visual experience. The first thing the reader notices about the poem is that all the letters and lines are jumbled up. There is only one clear word and it is the last word of the poem; grasshopper. The poem is extremely difficult to read. However, because all the words are jumbled, the reader works even harder to try to make sense of it, rather than just skimming through it, to find letters that fit together. The poem itself creates the image of a grasshopper jumping; the words and letters jump around the page. The poem is not meant to be read; it is meant to be stumbled through. The punctuation is an important part of this poem. It slows the reading down and separates the words, creating new groups. A good example of this is ???rea(be)rran(com)gi(e)ngly??? (R-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r 14). The two words written in that line are ???rearranging??? and ???becoming???. The fact that they are jumbled together further reflects the meaning. It also relates to the last line where the word ???grasshopper??? is spelled correctly. The word is rearranged, the previous spellings of it in the poem are jumbled, and it becomes ???grasshopper???. Letter care is also an important part in creating the visual meaning of the poem. The use of capitols and lower cases give the poem energy reflecting that of the grasshopper. The first use of the word ???grasshopper??? is in all capital letters, imitating the energy building up in the grasshopper before it starts hopping around. When the word appears in the middle of the poem, when other words and letters are leaping across the page, capital and lower case letters are mixed: ???.gRrEaPsPhOs)???(R-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r 12). This represents the energy and movement of the grasshopper. The last appearance of the word is the last word of the poem. It is shown in all lower case letters. At this point in the poem, the grasshopper is done moving around and the case of the letters reflects that as the smaller letters do not create an image of energy. The word jumbling, punctuation, and letter case in this poem give the poem life and it is as though the poem becomes the grasshopper. Cummings successfully creates an image of a grasshopper by combining those elements, reflecting the ???cubist??? ideas.
Wallace Stevens represents cubism through his poem ???The Snow Man???. ???The Snow Man??? is about the inability of humans to see the world without passing judgment, especially if something about the world might not be considered beautiful because of its inconvenience. This is especially true in snow storms, when the poem is set, because they are cold, wet, and not fun to be in. Stevens encourages the reader to take on a different view of winter and look through the eyes of a snowman. He says, ???One must have a mind of winter??? to truly appreciate just how beautiful winter can be (The Snow Man 1). The poem brings up reality and imagination. He describes the difference in the way a human views a scene v. a non-living object; a snowman. The person in the poem is miserable from the snowstorm because it is making everything difficult, Stevens wants the reader to ???not think of any misery in the sound of the wind, in the sound of a few leaves??? (The Snow Man 7-9). Though the human is misery, the snowman remains unaffected; that is why Stevens wants the reader to image they are a snowman. As humans, we are often unable to see beauty in some situations. This poem is telling us to try to become numb to nature to be able to see how beautiful it is. The poem begins with a very real winter scene, with the reader imagining they are the snowman and seeing beauty everywhere. In the end, though, it loses some of its imagination, saying that ???the listener, who listens in the snow, and, nothing himself, beholds nothing that is not there and the nothing that is??? (The Snow Man 14-15). Stevens is saying that we cannot see because we always imagine, therefore we can never truly grasp the world. This poem presents many qualities of cubism. Stevens creates both a visual and psychological experience by asking the reader to take on the view of a snowman. The world is then transformed to how the snowman sees it. This reflects the idea in cubism of creating different views of one subject. The reader must use their imagination to create a new visual world. Even the title can be seen two different ways. It can be read as ???snowman???, a man made out of snow, or, as it is written, ???snow man???, a man in the snow. Through the use of imagination, Stevens effectively creates an experience for the reader, forcing us to view things differently.
???13 Ways of Looking at a Blackbird??? is one of Stevens??™ best representations of cubism. It gives the reader a number of possible views of a subject, in this case a blackbird, over a span of time. The poem begins with a physical perception of a blackbird. It shows a lone blackbird in the mountains; it is the only thing that is moving. The second stanza is similar to the first, except there are three blackbirds. The third stanza is a bit different. The blackbird, rather than remaining mainly stationary, is being ???whirled in the autumn winds???, suggesting a lack of control. The blackbird is also part of a pantomime, suggesting that it holds a small part in the expression of life. Rather than being an observer, like in the first two stanzas, the blackbird is moving around and taking an active part in life. The poem then moves to depict the blackbird, man, and woman as one. It is no longer seen as a separate being; we are connected to it. Stevens goes on to create a total of thirteen ways of looking at it. He has a mixture of stanzas where the blackbird is the focus, like stanza 10: ???At the sight of blackbirds flying in a green light, even the bawds of euphony would cry out sharply??? (Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 39-41). Many blackbirds seen flying together often comes with a bad connotation and this stanza reflects that. Other stanzas include the blackbird as an afterthought. Stanza eight is a good representation of that, stating, ???I know noble accents and lucid, inescapable rhythms; but I know, too, that the blackbird is involved in what I know??? (Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird 33). This stanza at first reads as though the poet is praising himself for knowing many things, but them humbles himself by saying the blackbird as knows what he knows. Stevens is tracing what he knows back to nature. ???13 Ways of Looking at a Blackbird??? is largely cubist. Stevens creates multiple perspectives for the reader to see a blackbird. He is not asking the reader to use their imagination to use their imagination to create new views; he is showing new approaches to view reality. Stevens wants the reader to open their minds and look at the world differently from how they normally do. He offers not one new perspective, but thirteen, challenging the reader to take on as many views as they can. Stevens thus creates a psychological experience for the reader; welcoming them to think differently.
???Anecdote of the Jar??? also presents cubist elements. It relates human nature to the wilderness. Stevens forces the reader to feel the chaos between the jar and nature. The ???slovenly wilderness??? surrounds the jar, showing the relationship of nature and humans, with humans being the jar (Anecdote of the Jar 9). The wilderness, in this instance, holds the power. Humans have no control over it as it surrounds them. The poem also shows the power of the wilderness in line six; as the wilderness rises up to the jar, it is no longer viewed as wild. The wilderness is aware of the jar and is purposefully attempting to cover it up. Toward the end of the poem, however, man begins to gain power over the jar as ???it did not give of bird or bush??? (Anecdote of the Jar 11). The jar, or humans, has more control over nature as it does not give in to the natural world. This poem describes how Tennessee was before humans were there. It was wild, and still is, except for where the jar is. The place where the jar is, is ???like nothing else in Tennessee??? (Anecdote of the Jar 12). The wilderness was still able to hold some control over what humans were doing to the state. Humans, however, still have some control as they were able to carve out a piece of land where they were able to tame the wilderness. This poem offers different views of the situation in the poem. It can be read literally; as a jar on a hill with wilderness surrounding it, or it can be read symbolically. The jar represents how humans have tamed the wilderness and changed a piece of land to make it different from everything else in Tennessee. The reader can also decide whether the wilderness or the jar has the most control. The reader can read it as the wilderness winning by not giving in and letting the jar take over. However, it can also be seen that the jar has the most power as it was able to conquer the wilderness and stand tall. The poem applies the cubist idea of offering many different viewpoints, giving the reader the opportunity to think and see the situation from a different observation.
Cummings and Stevens effectively use the ideas of ???Cubist??? artists of the time. They give the reader an experience and offer them different views of the same subject. Stevens presents many different viewpoints on his poems, challenging the reader to think and open their minds. Stevens wants the reader to use their imagination in ???The Snow Man??? and adopt a different view point from their own. He gives the reader many different views of reality in ???13 Ways of Looking at a Blackbird??? and he makes the reader think and come up with different views on their own in ???Anecdote of the Jar???. Cummings, along with offering different views of a subject, also creates a visual and psychological experience for the reader. Cummings??™ poems are not written out traditionally, writing vertically and jumbling words placing them all around the page. He gives the reader a physical view of his subject, as well as offering different psychological views. He offers both literal and symbolical views of a leaf falling in ???l(a???. He also challenges the reader to form words and meaning in ???r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r???. Stevens and Cummings successfully incorporate cubist ideas into their poems, creating an experience for the reader.

Works Cited

“L(a – A Poem by E.e. Cummings – American Poems.” American Poems – YOUR Poetry Site.
Web. 02 Dec. 2011. .
“R-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r.” Poets.org – Poetry, Poems, Bios & More. Web. 02 Dec. 2011.
Stevens, Wallace. ???The Snow Man.??? The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Baym,
Nina. New York: W.W, 2008. 1992. Print.
Stevens, Wallace. ???Anecdote of the Jar.??? The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Baym,
Nina. New York: W.W, 2008. 1997. Print.
Stevens, Wallace. ???Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.??? The Norton Anthology of
American Literature. Baym, Nina. New York: W.W, 2008. 1997. Print.

I.T Infrastructure

Running Head: Networking Project
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University of Phoenix
Dominic Roberts

Patton-Fuller Community Hospital has been in business in the City of Kelsey since 1975. Patton-Fuller Community hospital structure from an IT network perspective includes logical network, administration network details, radiology, RIS data center, OR/ICU/Ward floor systems, and IT data center.
Identify how data is transmitted within the hospital and externally.
Patton-Fuller network structure for the entire hospital is 1000Base T using CAT 6 cable. Some departments are using a network structure of 1000BaseF using single mode fiber. The administrative side of the hospital is mostly using the 1000BaseT (Hospital Executive Management, Human Resources, Operations, Facilities, Finance, and IT Data Center). The clinical areas are those that are using 1000BaseF (Radiology, Operating Rooms, Wards, ICU??™s, Emergency Room, Labs, and Pharmacy). Patton-Fuller has a complete power backup system that is a large diesel motor generator that automatically takes over in a power failure. Patton-Fuller uses a network bridge to connect logical networks. Patton-Fuller Community hospital structure from an IT network perspective includes logical network, administration network details, radiology, RIS data center, OR/ICU/Ward floor systems, and IT data center. The Data is being transmitted throughout Patton-Fuller Community Hospital by using a network bridge. Each workstation in the administrative function segment uses an DHCP Server to obtain IP address. The clinical function segment IP addresses are static IP??™s. All workstations are connected to an internal domain. The outbound data is going through a proxy server.

Identify and describe the OSI layers directly involved
The layers seven through four are the communications that goes from the data source to its destination point. The layers three through one are the communication between the different devices that connected to the network. Layers seven through five deals with applications and implementing using software. Outlook/Exchange, Mac Mail, Surge Mail, is examples of software that these layers use. The previous software??™s are able to perform on different platforms from UNIX to Windows. Even if the mail is being send and received on different platforms the layers help make it through without being dependent on which operating system or a particular brand of hardware being used. Layers four through one allow the data to be moved be able to go the Network Cable Plant and the Wi-Fi Networks. Both the physical layer and the data link layer are implemented through both software and hardware. Each layer of the OSI Model receives a header that is than past down to all the layers until it reaches the physical layer. In order to understand the OSI Model let it be explained as follow with the reason how Patton-Fuller is using it.
Upper layers –
7. Application- The seventh Layer is responsible for standardizing services like file transfer and/or virtual terminal.
6. Presentation- The sixth layer is responsible for making data universally understood. This makes it that no matter what platform is used that the sender and receiver of data can understand each other. It is also responsible for encrypting and decrypting data and can compress data if it is needed.
5. Session- The fifth layer is responsible for establishing, and terminating communication, between the hosts, and send information to layers above it when it is needed.

Lower layers –
4. Transport- The fourth layer is responsible for delivering the messages throughout the network. Reliable delivery of data packets, Transmission Control Protocol or TCP) and connectionless delivery of packets (Internet Protocol or IP).
3. Network- The third layer is responsible for determining how the data is to be sent from one device to another device. It also looks to find the best way to route data to be sent through, it helps the prevention of Network Congestion, or it can prevent bottle necking which in a Taken ring Network could bring the entire ring down.
2. Data link- The second layer is responsible for framing the packets for delivering over the wire. It also looks for data that may collide and will re-transmit the data if it is needed.
1. Physical- The first layer is responsible for the connection of hardware on the network to the physical media.

Identify the various protocols that are available for use, and provide a recommended standard that should be used for the hospital.
Some protocols that are available are as follows: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), IP (Internet Protocol), DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), PPTP (Point to Point Tunneling Protocol).

SMTP- This protocol is used to send e-mail messages between the servers on the network. This protocol is a simple, text- based protocol that can have one or more recipients of a particular message that is specified and then transferred to recipients.
FTP- This protocol is used to either upload or download files from one computer to another using the internet, or using a computer network. This usually has a server and client. FTP can also be used for Virtual networking.
IP- This is a unique address that is given to each computer that is part of the computer network. This does not only include computers, but it also is used by any devices that are linked to the network, for example routers, printers, fax machines, and switches. The only problem with IP is that all personal information can be gotten through this unique address.
DHCP- This is a protocol that is used by devices like routers, computers or network adapter so it is able to request and obtain IP address from a specific server which has a list of addresses. Network computers use DHCP to obtain IP address and settings like gateway, DNS, subnet mask from DHCP server. DHCP makes sure that the addresses it gives are unique, and is not managed by people but by the server. The DCHP does have expiration on it.
TFTP- This protocol has very basic features. This protocol can be implemented in a very small amount of memory. This protocol is usually used to boot computers like routers. This protocol can also be used to transfer files over a computer network. The problem with this is that it is not very secure.
PPTP- This protocol is used for virtual private networks.
Patton-Fuller Community Hospital would greatly benefit from using FTP. Patton-Fuller could use this because in the hospital each department counts on the other, and by having FTP they are able to send patient information to each other and only to those that need that information. Keeping patient information private is a requirement of the hospital and by using FTP Patton-Fuller Community Hospital will be able to do so. Patton-Fuller can even use FTP for personal that is transcribing something fir the hospital.
Use outside research to show how these standards have been used in similar companies to explain your choice.
Hospitals use FTP to transfer files that are transcribed. ???A second method is FTP, or File Transfer Protocol. An internet address is assigned to a server and files are either “pushed” or “pulled” from one PC to the other using the internet. Ideally, the transcription company will have installed a transcription database into which files are delivered. An advantage to doing this is that a local internet connection is utilized, so phone costs are avoided. Disadvantages to using this method include the training involved to orchestrate FTP, especially in a small medical office, as well as the required hardware and software firewalls needed to protect the FTP server in addition to encryption programs that should be utilized. Other factors to be considered when serving a larger medical facility are its own resident networks, firewalls and other protective measures, which present additional challenges to setting up FTP functions.??? (“Transcription Delivery”) According to this paragraph it is an easy way for hospitals to transfer files to have transcribed and sent back to them. Hospitals have their billing and their patient files transcribed. Hospitals use an outside company to do this for them. By creating a way of using FTP the files are safely send back and forth. It is a great way to be able to handle such a vast amount of work and get things transcribed on time. Hospitals are a place where time is very important and using outside help needs to be fast but also secure since vital information is being transmitted. Ftp can help any hospital accomplish time sensitive materials, using a quick and easy way.

1. Transcription Delivery. (). Retrieved from http://www.medicaltranscription.com/deliverymethods.htm


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Probably no ethnic group has had more influence on the fortunes of a city in a
short period of time than have the Cubans on Miami. Most consider the Cubans??™ economic
influence positive. The Cuban and other Latin American immigrants have
transformed Miami from a quiet resort to a boomtown. To a large degree, they have
re-created the Cuba they left behind. Today, the population of metropolitan Miami is
more than 35 percent foreign born??”more than any other city. Residents like to joke
that one of the reasons they like living in Miami is that it is close to the United States
(Clary 1997b).

All Cuban immigrants have had much to adjust to, and they have not been able to
immediately establish the kind of life they sought. Although some of those who fled
Cuba were forced to give up their life??™s savings, the early immigrants of the first wave
were generally well educated, had professional or managerial backgrounds, and
therefore met with greater economic success than later immigrants. However, regardless
of the occupations the immigrants were able to enter, there was tremendous
adjustment for the family. Women who typically did not work outside the home often
had to seek employment. Immigrant parents found their children being exposed to a
foreign culture. All the challenges typically faced by immigrant households were complicated
by uncertainty surrounding those they left behind in Cuba.
The primary adjustment among south Florida??™s Cuban Americans is more to each
other than to Whites, African Americans, or other Latinos. The prolonged immigration
now stretching across two generations has led to differences between Cuban
Americans in terms of ties to Cuba, social class, and age. There is not a single Cuban
American lifestyle (Navarro 1999).
The long-range prospects for Cubans in the United States depend on several factors.
Of obvious importance are events in Cuba, for many Cuban refugees publicly
proclaim their desire to return if the communist government is overturned. A powerful
force in politics in Miami is the Cuban-American National Foundation, which
takes a strong anti-Castro position. They have actively opposed any proposals that the
United States develop a more flexible policy toward Cuba. More moderate voices in
the Cuban exile community have not been encouraged to speak out. Indeed, sporadic
violence has even occurred within the community over U.S.??“Cuban relations. In
addition, artists or speakers who come from Cuba receive a cold reception in Miami
unless they are outspoken critics of Fidel Castro (L. Martin 1996).
Cuban Americans have selectively accepted Anglo culture. But Cuban culture has
been tenacious; the Cuban immigrants do not feel that they need to forget Spanish
while establishing fluency in English, the way other immigrant children have shunned
their linguistic past. Still, a split between the original exiles and their children is evident.
Young people are more concerned about the Miami Dolphins football team
than they are about what is happening in Havana. They are more open to reestablishing
relations with a Castro-led Cuba. However, the more recent wave of immigrants,
the recien llegados (recently arrived), have again introduced more openly anti-Castro
feelings, as evidenced in the battles over Elian Gonzalez in 2000 and travel restrictions
in 2004.

The beginnings of the Mexican experience in the United States were as varied as
the people themselves. Some Mexican Americans were affluent, with large land holdings.
Others were poor peasants barely able to survive. Along such rivers as the Rio
Grande, commercial towns grew up around the increasing river traffic. In New Mexico
and Arizona, many Mexican American people welcomed the protection that the
U.S. government offered against several Native American tribes. In California, life was
quickly dominated by the gold miners, and Anglos controlled the newfound wealth.
One generalization can be made about the many segments of the Mexican American
population in the 19th century: They were regarded as a conquered people. In fact,
even before the war, many Whites who traveled into the West were already prejudiced
against people of mixed blood (in this instance, against Mexicans). Whenever Mexican
American and Anglo interests conflicted, Anglo interests won (Servin 1974).
A pattern of second-class treatment for Mexican Americans emerged well before
the 20th century. Gradually, the Anglo system of property ownership replaced the
Native American and Hispanic systems. Mexican Americans who inherited land
proved no match for Anglo lawyers. Court battles provided no protection for poor
Spanish-speaking landowners. Unscrupulous lawyers occasionally defended Mexican
Americans successfully, only to demand half the land as their fee. Anglo cattle ranchers
gradually pushed out Mexican American ranchers. By 1892, the federal government
was granting grazing privileges on public grasslands and forests to anyone
except Mexican Americans. Effectively, the now Mexican Americans had become outsiders
in their own homeland. The ground was laid for the social structure of the
Southwest in the 20th century, an area of growing productivity in which minority
groups have increased in size but remain largely subordinate (Moquin and Van
Doren 1971:251).

Puerto Ricans

The beginnings of rule by the United States quickly destroyed any hope that Puerto
Ricans??”or Boricua, as Puerto Ricans call themselves??”had for self-rule. All power
was given to officials appointed by the president, and any act of the island??™s legislature
could be overruled by Congress. Even the spelling was changed briefly to Porto Rico
to suit North American pronunciation. English, previously unknown on the island,
became the only language permitted in the school systems. The people were colonized??”
first politically, then culturally, and finally economically (Aran et al. 1973;
Christopulos 1974).
Citizenship was extended to Puerto Ricans by the Jones Act of 1917, but Puerto
Rico remained a colony. This political dependence altered in 1948, when Puerto Rico
elected its own governor and became a commonwealth. This status, officially Estado
Libre Asociado, or Associated Free State, extends to Puerto Rico and its people privileges
and rights different from those of people on the mainland. Although Puerto
Ricans are U.S. citizens and elect their own governor, they may not vote in presidential
elections and have no voting representation in Congress. They are subject to military
service, Selective Service registration, and all federal laws. Puerto Ricans have a
homeland that is and at the same time is not a part of the United States


The challenges to immigrants from Latin America are reflected in the experience
of Colombians, numbering close to a half million in the United States. The initial
arrivals from this South American nation after World War I were educated middleclass
people who quickly assimilated to life in the United States. Rural unrest in
Colombia in the 1980s triggered large-scale movement to the United States, where
the Colombian immigrants had to adapt to a new culture and to urban life. The adaptation
of this later group has been much more difficult. Some have found success
through catering to other Colombians. For example, enterprising immigrants have
opened bodegas (grocery stores) to supply traditional, familiar foodstuffs. Similarly
Colombians have established restaurants, travel agencies, and real estate firms that
serve other Colombians. However, many find themselves obliged to take menial jobs
and to combine the income of several family members to meet the high cost of urban
life. Colombians of mixed African descent face racial as well as ethnic and language
barriers (Guzman 2001).

After researching all four groups Mexican, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Columbians have come to the conclusion that all four groups are similar in why they came to the United States. But are very different in many ways in which would be reglious beliefs, economics, and political. In which they each have their own beliefs. One prime example of all four groups would be they are all very family orienated. All four groups speak Spanish in which have their own lanuage and are not the exact same at all. These groups are all latin but would not like to be called anything else but who they are, for example Mexican is Mexican not Puerto Rican. In which you would understand if you was called something other then what you actual are and was always being confused with other ethic groups. Each group is their own group and would prefer you not to group all latin in one, it takes away from each groups identity.


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Mustafa Moiz & Mark Strong
#33 Divided We Govern (1991)
By: David R. Mayhew
Thesis: A phrase we sometimes hear when dealing with politics reads ???divided we fall???. Rarely on the American scene do we hear the words ???divided we stand???. David R. Mayhew holds that this is an inherently true statement and believes the key to the mystery can be found by looking at the big picture. According to Mayhew, bipartisan government may showcase a detrimental image from one presidency to the next, but in the grand scheme of the nation??™s history its effects are near minimal.
On a small scale, it appears to the confined temporal eye that a divided government works against itself. Mayhew quotes V.O. Key, Jr. ???division of party control precludes [energetic government]???. One theory claims that congressional oversight will run rampant in a House or Senate that runs contrary to the executive branch. This holds true for the Supreme Court as well, as shown best by the Republican court the Democratic FDR dealt with in the first six years of his presidency. This division also seems to restrain two facets of government which at times are necessary: ideological coherence and budgetary coherence. Mayhew also hypothesizes that foreign policy could suffer if division was present during times of crisis or otherwise. In these instances and countless others contradicting policy appears harmful, but does this stand true in the long run
In fact, the legislative record in the postwar era trends independently of divided party controls. Mayhew points to the ability of both the Johnson and Reagan administrations to pass efficient and coherent legislation, when these administrations operated under unified and divided control, respectively. Circumstances which would seem to suggest the contrary ??“ the counterproductive slew of Congressional hearings and micromanaging during the Nixon administration, for instance ??“ are refuted as products of extenuating circumstances (in this case the Watergate scandal, and a drastic rise in public mistrust of government officials). Mayhew does not pretend the absence of party division; rather, he suggests that it is not the cause of government inefficiency. He offers little alternative, though cites John E. Chubb??™s theory that perhaps ???it is worth considering whether the problem is the government itself and not the people or parties that run it.???
Gibbs: Obama Wants Filibuster Reformed Even If GOP Takes Over Congress
First Posted: 10-28-10 03:25 PM? ? ? ? ?  Sam Stein HuffPost Reporting
WASHINGTON — President Obamas commitment to reforming the rules of the filibuster will endure even if Republicans end up taking control of Congress, White House spokesman Robert Gibbs said on Thursday.
Diminishing or restricting the use of the filibuster (as it is currently conceived) would be a potentially major concession on behalf of the Democratic Party should they lose control of the Senate. The president could conceivably apply his filibuster to the legislative output of a Republican-led Congress. But the application of cloture rules would prevent some of those dramatic legislative/executive branch showdowns.
The prospect of being thrust back into the minority has given some of the more progressive filibuster reform advocates a bit of pause, as they reflect on their ability to slow down President George W. Bushs agenda during the middle years of his administration.
But a good chunk of reform advocates have also taken the long-road approach — recognizing that the founders never conceived of the legislative process being led by a minority of 40, and arguing the proficiency of government depends on institutional changes. The White House has been more philosophical than specific with its preferences. But Gibbs comments on Thursday are a firm indication that the president falls into the latter camp.
???I think it sort of drove most people to come here: whether the rules and the atmosphere of this place has largely corrupted some into believing that this is all about stopping you from doing this and me for doing that. Tell me… how we make progress on any single issue if this is the case

I Prefer to Work at Home

People??™s opinions are divergent on such a controversial issue working at home using computers and telephones or working at office. The over whelming majority would support that working in the office is better than working at home using computers and telephones, however, from my own perspective, I prefer to work at home. will writing service hastings
The main reason for my preference to work at home is that working at home could save lots of time for the procedure of transportation, what??™s more, with more and more competition of society, computers and telephones provide conveniences which mean employees are allowed to keep in touch with their leaders and colleagues at any time and any place. To more specific, the high-tech devices are able to deal dozens of tasks and exchange information.
Another essential factor why I advocate working at home is that employees would not be restricted by the regulations of company and could arrange their schedule according to their demanding and propensity. Specifically, workers can coordinate their working schedule to fit the best performance period so that achieve the optimal merits of working. For example, usually I keep my best state in evening but have to work in daytime, just imagine how wonderful it will be if I can schedule my working time at night.
Ultimately, working at home also help employees to develop sense of independent, no one can deny the fact that worker has to think about the assignment independently and work out the solution by him/herself. It does not mean people work without assistances, oppositely, it creates a deliberate ambiance without interruptions.
In conclusion, working at home using computers or telephones is better than working in office. Not only because of convenience and time flexibility but also the notion of independence.

Cuban Revolution

Historical Context of the speech
The beginning of the Cuban revolution is the reason why this speech was held.
The revolution began only a few months before this speech with the attack of the Moncada casern, where the revolutionist Fidel Castro tried to take over the power of Cuba.
As the attack oppressed by the regime of dictator Baptista, Castro and his men were condemned for some years of prison. When they left, they reorganized themselves in Mexico and started the revolution in 1956.
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Fidel Castro, son of a successful Creole sugar plantation owner, was born in Cuba in 1926. Fidel was sent to a Jesuit boarding school. Although he disliked the strict discipline of the school, Fidel soon showed that he was extremely intelligent. However, except for history, he preferred sports to academic subjects. Fidel was good at running, soccer and baseball, and in 1944 was awarded the prize as Cubas best all-round school athlete.
After he had finished his education Castro became a lawyer in Havana. As he tended to take the cases of poor people who could not afford to pay him, Castro was constantly short of money. Castros experience as a lawyer made him extremely critical of the great inequalities in wealth that existed in Cuba. Like many other Cubans, Castro resented the wealth and power of the American businessmen who appeared to control the country.
In 1947 Castro joined the Cuban Peoples Party. He was attracted to this new partys campaign against corruption, injustice, poverty, unemployment and low wages. The Cuban Peoples Party accused government ministers of taking bribes and running the country for the benefit of the large United States corporations that had factories and offices in Cuba.
In 1952 Fidel Castro became a candidate for Congress for the Cuban Peoples Party. He was a superb public speaker and soon built up a strong following amongst the young members of the party. The Cuban Peoples Party was expected to win the election but during the campaign. GeneralFulgencio Batista, with the support of the armed forces, took control of the country.
Castro came to the conclusion that revolution was the only way that the Cuban Peoples Party would gain power. In 1953, Castro, with an armed group of 123 men and women, attacked the Moncada Army Barracks. The plan to overthrow Batista ended in disaster and although only eight were killed in the fighting, another eighty were murdered by the army after they were captured. Castro was lucky that the lieutenant who arrested him ignored orders to have him executed and instead delivered him to the nearest civilian prison.
Castro also came close to death in prison. Captain Pelletier was instructed to put poison in Castros food. The man refused and instead revealed his orders to the Cuban people. Pelletier was court-martialed but, concerned about world opinion, Batista decided not to have Castro killed.

I Need Help

Take Home Essay Assignment #1 PHIL 1010 Tri-C Kondik
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Guidelines: Write well crafted essays using a 12 point standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial (other normal fonts are acceptable). Also, be sure to double space your essays as well. I also strongly recommend that you cite appropriate quotes from the textbook when relevant. Outside research is not explicitly required, although it would strongly aid any of these essays. If you email me your papers, title the attachment with your first and last name along with ???E1??? after your name.

Email: [email protected]

Due Date: Friday March 25??™th @ Midnight

Instructions: Pick any three out of the five essay prompts. I expect around 1 to 2 pages for each response. Less may suffice provided it is exceptionally concise and well formulated. Each essay will be worth 30 points + ten points for following the formatting guidelines. (100 total)

1. Fully explain the concept of Ockham??™s Razor and how it is primarily derived from Aristotelian modes of thought. Additionally, discuss Ockham??™s metaphysical views. Do you agree with Ockham??™s stance on metaphysical views Why or why not

2. Pick any three Pre-Socratic philosophers and discuss their views of what the primary substance is. In addition, describe how each theory is more rationalist or empiricist in character. Which view is the best Why

3. Discuss the views of Socrates and Plato in regards to what the best political system should be. Most of your essay should concentrate on the ideas of Plato.

Do you favor Plato??™s ideas about the ideal state Why or why not

4. Describe the Aristotelian world view advocated by St. Thomas Aquinas. In addition explain how Aquinas modifies Aristotle??™s system to be compatible with a Christian worldview. What do you think of Aquinas??™s modifications to Aristotle??™s original system

5. Pick any heresy from the following (Gnosticism, Manichaean, Arian, Pelagian). Describe the heresy along with the traditional Christian response or the original problem that the heresy responded to. Which view is better Why do you think that way


Write one additional essay for up to ten points in extra credit.